Posted on the Neuromarketing blog:
Behavioral economics and neuroeconomics are closely related fields, rather in the same way that psychology and neuroscience are related. It seems that Democrat presidential hopeful Barack Obama has a behavioral economist on his staff.
~ Read on... ~
Saturday, March 8, 2008
Posted on the Neuromarketing blog:
Health begins in the soil; Healing begins with hygiene; Liberty begins with freedom.
Soil And Health Library
The Free Digitalized Library:
There are four major subject areas:
Radical Agriculture. The nutritional qualites of food and consequently the health of the animals and humans eating that food are determined by soil fertility. This section's interest is far wider than organic gardening and farming; other health-determined approaches to food-raising are also included. Go to the Agriculture Library
The Restoration and Maintenance of Health. Nutritional medicine heals disease, builds and maintains health with diet—and sometimes heals with fasting or other forms of dietary restriction. There are many approaches represented in this collection. There is also a collection concerning longevity and nutritional anthropology. Go to the Health Library
Achieving Personal Sovereignty. Physical, mental, and spiritual health are linked to one's lifestyle. This collection focuses on liberating activities, especially homesteading and the skills it takes to do that—small-scale entrepreneuring, financial independence, frugality, and voluntary simplicity. There is also a collection of social criticism, especially from a back-to-the-land point of view. Go to the Personal Sovereignty Library
Achieving Spiritual Freedom. There are many seemingly-different self-betterment roads. The books in this collection seek to empower a person to effect their own development in an independent manner. Go to the Spiritual Freedom Library.
Clippings and Miscellaneous. Since this library's beginning patrons have sent information and URLs where interesting bits of information and viewpoints could be found. Here you will find articles and essays and etc. that support and enhance the information found in our book collections. Go to the Clipping File.
Latest E-Books Added. Digitalized titles added to the online Soil and Health Library in the last few months, click here:
Complete book at Sacred Texts:
" ... The connection between Christianity and Buddhism is unmistakable, both in terms of the traditional narratives of the respective founders, and in their parable-riddled attributed sayings. Some, particularly occultists, have attempted to explain this by proposing a residence in India by Jesus during his 'lost years,' for instance, Notovich, and the derivative work by Dowling. Arthur Lillie here examines possible historical linkages between the two religions from a critical, rationalist, viewpoint.
His theory will be thought-provoking for Buddhists and Christians alike. Lillie explores some of the same issues which John Robertson targets in Pagan Christs, particularly the evolution of sacrificial rites into symbolic forms. He is not a believer in the historicity of either Jesus or Buddha, and he pokes a lot of holes in the normative chronology of Buddhism. Lillie is also trying to open up an additional front here, by attempting to reduce much of Indian mythology to a multiplication of forms of Shiva. This is a radical view which blurs some of the efficacy of this book. He also, curiously enough, ignores the parallels between the Christ and Krishna stories, which many others have remarked on.
On the whole, this controversial thesis is an enjoyable read, and a rare attempt by a free-thinker to confront the issue of diffusion of religious concepts from India to the Near East. ... "
~ India in Primitive Christianity by Arthur Lillie (1909) ~
A former Argentine navy lieutenant wanted for his alleged role in a 1972 massacre of 16 leftist guerrillas is now heading a medical personnel supply company that has contracts with the U.S. Defense Department.
A lawyer for Roberto Guillermo Bravo, 65, said Thursday his client denies the massacre charges and will fight extradition.
"Anything that he did while he was in the Argentinean military was done in a legal manner, and he was not involved in any execution-style killings," said attorney Neal Sonnett.
Bravo's Miami-based company, RGB Group Inc., places workers in positions in the health care and security industries. Its Web site lists numerous federal agencies as "satisfied clients,' including the Army, the Marines, the Federal Bureau of Prisons and the Department of Health and Human Services.
"The RGB Group is a company that the Defense Department does business with," Pentagon spokesman Chris Isleib said. "These are serious allegations, and we are taking a hard look at them."
Since last month, an Argentine federal judge has been seeking Bravo and two others on charges of torture, homicide, attempted homicide and illegal detentions in the so-called "Trelew Massacre."
Nineteen guerrillas were allegedly machine-gunned in their cells at a military base days after being recaptured following a prison break. Three prisoners survived the attack and reported the crime.
Four former Argentine naval officers suspected in the case were detained last month, including retired officer Carlos Marandino, who flew voluntarily from the United States to Argentina to surrender in the federal investigation.
Also captured recently was Luis Emilio Sosa, 73, accused of commanding the naval force that recaptured the guerrillas.
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The Left undoubtedly has the best of it, though. They certainly have the best of this volume, which contains nothing of Stephen Bodio's at all—nothing at all sympathetic to hunting, except as carried out by Ameri- can Indians. Bill McKibben, the editor of American Earth, has been a keen propagandist against global warming and an apostle of “sustainability.” In his prefatory note to the lyrics of Woody Guthrie's song “This Land Is Your Land,” McKibben tells us: “Were I in charge of such matters, [Guthrie's song] would alternate weeks with 'America the Beautiful' as our national anthem.” I'll confess I've always liked the song, but given Guthrie's stint as a columnist for The Daily Worker, I doubt it will ever be a favorite at Republican National Conventions.
Woody Guthrie is not the worst of it. Here is the white-hating, man-hating, and most particularly white-man-hating—or, as McKibben says in his preface to the extract, novelist of “the struggle against racism and patriarchy”—Alice Walker, railing against “Indian killers and slave owners Washington and Jefferson and the like.” Here is the “literature of social justice” novelist Barbara Kingsolver, though rhapsodizing unpolitically, for the most part, about her Appalachian cabin. Here is the liberal New York Times editor Joseph Lelyveld at the first Earth Day observance in 1970, quoting the ultraliberal New York City Mayor John V. Lindsay with approval: “Beyond words like ecology, environment, and pollution there is a simple question: Do we want to live or die?” (Probably the victims registered in the near-tripling of New York's homicide rate on Lindsay's watch would have preferred to live.)
Here are Carl Anthony and Renée Soule yoking together, with all necessary rhetorical violence, the diversity of the natural world and the great modern cult of “diversity” that pays the salaries of a million talentless sub-intellectual busybodies like themselves:
Ecologists and social justice advocates both promote respect for diversity. That respect depends upon a mature capacity to embrace and even celebrate apparent contradictions. This internal stance of inclusivity is the key to ecopsychology, where a healthy multicultural, multibiotic, multiregional and multifacted psyche merges and blends gracefully with Earth's ecology.
The leap from the social to the ecological, from our injustice to each other to the insults we inflict on the natural world—from, as it were, “man is wolf to man” to “man is wolf to wolf”—seems to come very readily to writers of the multicultural-left tendency. The palm here must go to Alice Walker:
Some of us have become used to thinking that woman is the nigger of the world, that a person of color is the nigger of the world, that a poor person is the nigger of the world. But, in truth, Earth itself has become the nigger of the world.
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The Holocaust of Kalavryta (Greek: Ολοκαύτωμα των Καλαβρύτων), or the Massacre of Kalavryta (Σφαγή των Καλαβρύτων), refers to the extermination of the male population and the subsequent total destruction of the town of Kalavryta, in Greece, by German occupying forces during World War II on 13 December 1943. It is the most serious case of war crimes committed during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II.
On a mass murder mission named Unternehmen Kalavryta (Operation Kalavryta), which began from the coastal area of Achaea in Northern Peloponnese, Wehrmacht troops marched to the town of Kalavryta burning villages and murdering civilians on their way. When they reached the town they locked all women and children younger than 14 in the town's school and ordered all male residents 14 and older to a field just outside the village. There, the German troops machine-gunned down 1258 of them. There were only 13 survivors.
German soldiers of the 117th Jäger Division in the burning town of Kalavryta
May 4, 1970
Kent State University, Kent, Ohio
Sixty-three shots in 13 seconds. Thirteen horrifying seconds in American history that resulted in the deaths of four students and the wounding of nine others.
Between sixty-one and sixty-seven shots were fired in thirteen seconds without order or warning. The outcome, four American students dead along with nine others injured. The four students shot and killed were Allison Krause, William (Bill) Shroeder, Sandra Scheuer, and Jeffrey (Jeff) Miller. Allison Krause was hit by a shot penetrating the left side of her body (through her arm and chest) about three hundred and fifty yards away. Bill was shot in the back four hundred feet away. Sandra was also shot about four hundred feet about but through her throat. Jeff was shoot in his mouth nearly two hundred and seventy-five feet away. A memorial for these students has been erected on the site where they died.
Of the thirteen shots that connected, seven were in the sides of the backs of students showing they were not advancing toward the Ohio National Guardsmen, they were fleeing. Therefore, not every student that congregated as the common was a participant in the peaceful demonstration that turned into a bloody murder scene. Some were walking to and from their classes, other were just spectators of the scene. The University was ordered closed immediately, first by President Robert White and then indefinitely by Portage County Prosecutor Ronald Kane under an injunction from Common Please Judge Albert Caris. Classes did not resume until the summer of 1970, and faculty members engaged in a wide variety of activities through the mail and off-campus meeting that enabled Kent State students to finish the semester.
13: A Secret Number of Sacred Power
13 was a number central to certain traditions of sacred geometry, because it reflected a pattern which could be seen to exist in man, nature, and the heavens. For instance, there are 13 major joints in your body. There are 13 lunar cycles in a solar year, and the moon travels 13 degrees across the sky every day. Six circles placed around a seventh central circle is a model of geometric efficiency and perfection in the second dimension that has been known to mathematicians for ages. But this same configuration in three dimensions consists of 12 spheres arranged around one central sphere, making 13 in all - the most compact three-dimensional arrangement recurrent in nature. A commentator writing about the Aztec calendar once said that, "Thirteen is a basic structural unit in nature. It means the attracting center around which elements focus and collect." Is this, then, the reason for Christ’s 12 disciples, King Arthur’s 12 knights, or the 12 major constellations in relation to our sun?
Words From Mayan Grand Elder Wakatel Utiw (Wandering Wolf)
We have several prophecies concerning the time we are living in, and it is in fulfillment of the Prophecies that we are here today. I will mention some of them:
“At the time of the 13 Baktun and 13 Ahau is the time of the return of our Ancestors and the return of the men of wisdom.” That time is now.
Nov 12, 2001—Mar 25, 2002: 13 renowned microbiologists mysteriously die over the span of less than five months. All but one are killed or murdered under unusual circumstances. Some are world leaders in developing weapons-grade biological plagues. Others are the best in figuring out how to stop millions from dying because of biological weapons. Still others are experts in the theory of bioterrorism.
How to Fall 35,000 Feet—And Survive
Surviving a plunge surrounded by a semiprotective cocoon of debris is more common than surviving a pure free-fall, according to Hamilton’s statistics; 31 such confirmed or “plausible” incidents have occurred since the 1940s. Free-fallers constitute a much more exclusive club, with just 13 confirmed or plausible incidents, including perennial Ripley’s Believe It or Not superstar Alan Magee—blown from his B-17 on a 1943 mission over France. The New Jersey airman, more recently the subject of a MythBusters episode, fell 20,000 feet and crashed into a train station; he was subsequently captured by German troops, who were astonished at his survival.
Germany Gave Names to Secret Taliban Hit List
Thanks to the WikiLeaks revelations, war-weary Germany now knows that German officials added names to the JPEL at least 13 times. On this list, 13 names translate into 13 potential death warrants. The Germans only mark their candidates with a C for "capture," and not with a K for "kill." But in fact all International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) troops are authorized to shoot and kill candidates on the JPEL list if, for example, they attempt to avoid capture by fleeing. In other words, although German elite troops do not use the kill option themselves, Germany does provide its tacit approval of the killing of candidates in the zone under its control in northern Afghanistan.
The Man Who Unearthed 200 Mass Graves in Spain
With the passage of the ”law on historical memory” in 2000 and a lawsuit filed by a son who had lost his father, Etxeberria began to excavate in Priaranza del Bierzo in the northern province of León. The bodies of 13 civilians shot by firing squad at the start of the war were unearthed. It was the first scientific excavation of mass graves carried out in Spain, nearly 70 years after the war began.
In the evening of 29 September 1913, Diesel boarded the post office steamer Dresden in Antwerp on his way to a meeting of the Consolidated Diesel Manufacturing company in London. He took dinner on board the ship and then retired to his cabin at about 10 p.m., leaving word for him to be called the next morning at 6:15 a.m.. He was never seen alive again. Ten days later, the crew of the Dutch boat Coertsen came upon the corpse of a man floating in the sea. The body was in such an advanced state of decomposition that they did not bring it aboard. Instead, the crew retrieved personal items (pill case, wallet, pocket knife, eyeglass case) from the clothing of the dead man, and returned the body to the sea. On 13 October these items were identified by Rudolf's son, Eugen Diesel, as belonging to his father.
There are various theories to explain Diesel's death. Grosser (1978) presents a case for suicide; other theories suggest that various people's business interests may have provided motives for homicide. Evidence is limited for all explanations.
Munich Oktoberfest bombing
...The synagogue bombing struck a raw, guilt-strained nerve in France, which has a history of anti-Semitism stretching back to the Enlightenment and including a virulent flare-up during the Depression. Still painful are memories of the German Occupation, when the Vichy regime helped the Nazis send 85,000 Jews to death camps. Rue Copernic made Frenchmen wonder whether violence was once again becoming a factor in their political life, especially since it closely followed explosions set off by right-wing terrorists at the Bologna train station (84 dead, 160 injured) and Munich's Oktoberfest (13 dead, 215 injured). Conditions certainly seemed right for a fascist revival in Western Europe. With work hard to find, restive young people have been growing impatient with prevailing economic models, both capitalist (U.S.) and Communist (U.S.S.R.). For a simplistic few, fascism seems reassuringly regimented. In France and West Germany (though not so much in Spain and Italy), fascism and anti-Semitism tend to go hand in hand...
Columbine survivor: 13 victims deserve the headlines
Rachel. Daniel. Dave. Kyle. Steve. Cassie. Isaiah. Matthew. Lauren. John. Kelly. Corey. Daniel.
The 13 victims of the 1999 Columbine school shooting should be the names in headlines and pictures, Marjorie Lindholm, a Columbine survivor told a room full of Clark County and other area educators, counselors and emergency personnel at Wittenberg University Tuesday, Aug. 5.
The two teens who committed suicide after the April 20, 1999 massacre they planned for more than a year that left 12 classmates and a teacher dead, should be "nameless," Lindholm said.
The gunman who shot 13 people dead at an immigration centre in upstate New York was a loner who loved guns but believed that “America sucks” and fantasised about assassinating the president.
He took out his rage on those who were still striving for the American dream, oblivious to his own disappointment, before killing himself.
Nostradamus predicts Armageddon will happen in 2012
Eight spoke wheel, alignment only happens once ever 13,000 years
"I should explain perhaps why the eight spoke wheel is so important. In the sky there is a great cross that does not move, and its formed by the center of the galaxy and from the center point of our celestial equator to the southern point of the celestial equator, that's the divine cross. Down here on the ground we have the mundane cross that is formed by the angles between equinox and the solstice and so forth, so the eight armed cross, the eight rayed star, the 8 spoke wheel...all represents the alignment in space and time of the divine cross above and the terrestrial mundane cross below."
Then he goes on and states...."Now curiously enough this alignment only happens once ever 13,000 years. These crosses have not aligned since 11,000 B.C., roughly 13,000 years ago." Of course whether that is accurate or not, is pretty hard to say.
The Bilderberg Influence Part 2
...The Bilderbergers decide jointly on the best way to deal with the resources of the planet, and exert control over energy and money supplies, reported Estulin. The structure of the group is not pyramidal with one person at the top-- it is "oval" with three groups of 13 people deciding the particular issues and participants in a given year, he added...
The Pentagon Papers, officially titled United States–Vietnam Relations, 1945–1967: A Study Prepared by the Department of Defense, were a top-secret United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political-military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967. Commissioned by United States Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara in 1967, the study was completed in 1968. The papers first surfaced on the front page on the New York Times in 1971.
The study was classified as top-secret and was intended for publication, however, these papers did lead to all out protests of the war and violent riots in the streets on the East Coast. However, contributor Daniel Ellsberg gave most of the Pentagon Papers to New York Times reporter Neil Sheehan, with Ellsberg's friend Anthony Russo assisting in their copying. The Times began publishing excerpts as an article-series on June 13, 1971.
Thirteen months of toil
Unlike the Western, or Gregorian calendar, the Coptic calendar, for at least the past five millennia, has had 13 months. Like the Ancient Egyptians, the Coptic Christians divide the year into three and not four seasons. The Egyptian months and seasons were inextricably intertwined with agriculture and the ebb and flow of the River Nile. The three seasons include the Inundation, which marks the beginning of the year, the Sowing Season (winter), and the Harvest (summer). The Sowing and Inundation seasons have four months, while the Harvest has five. And since time immemorial, Egyptian farming communities have organised agricultural activities on the basis of three seasons and 13 months.
Significance of Thirteen as a Symbolic Number in Tibetan and Mongolian Cultures
11, 13 and 33 - The Illuminati / Freemason Signature
"The numbers 3, 7, 9,11,13, 33, 39. Any multiple of these numbers have special meaning to the Illuminati. Notice that the Bilderberg Group has core of 39 members who are broken into 3 groups of 13 members in each group. Notice that the core of 39 answers to the 13 who make up the Policy Committee. Take special notice that the 13 members of the Policy Committee answer to the Round Table of Nine. You know that the original number of states in the United States of America was 13. The Constitution has 7 articles and was signed by 39 members of the Constitutional Convention." Secret Societies / New World Order: by Milton William Cooper
The Meaning of The Number Thirteen (13)
The spiritual significance of the number thirteen (13), which as reflected by the thirteen attributes of Mercy (we will look at these attributes later), relates to a transcendent dimension of G-dliness. This transcendence enables one to infuse spirituality within our material world.
Twelve is the number of maximal differentiation. It is the number of lines that border a cube, and according to Chazal, all of reality.
The fact that the twelve are all connected in the center is the thirteenth. Thirteen is the number that bonds multiplicity into oneness. For example: There are twelve tribes that are bonded into their father Israel (Yaaqov). Israel is the thirteenth. The meaning of the number thirteen is the bonding of many into one.
Jews look to make many into one whilst the Gentiles look to make one into many. This is exemplified with the preeminent prayer of the Jews, the Shema, which speaks of HaShem being one; while the Gentile’s preeminent theology is the trinity, in which they make HaShem into three gods. Thus the Goyim have a superstition that the number thirteen is bad, whilst the Jews see the number thirteen as very good.
The number thirteen is among the holiest of the numbers because it is closely associated with HaShem.
The history of the Migrants’ Place starts in 1997, on the 1st floor of 35 Valtetsiou St. in Exarhia, as an initiative of the Network of Social Support for Refugees and Migrants. Slowly, a meeting space between greeks and migrants was formed, a space of solidarity, coexistence, freedom and exchange. The Migrants’ Place served as a venue for communities’ meetings, the assembly of the Coordinating Body of Antiracist and Migrants’ Organizations, events, talks, as well as an info point for migrants and refugees. It also had its own cultural life: music, games, glentia, parties, exhibitions. Turkish and spanish lessons were set up, followed by the creation of “Πίσω Θρανία” (Back Benches), a group of teachers teaching greek to migrants. Within this meeting place of people and ideas, groups were formed, new acquaintances were made and different worlds came together. The Place’s maintenance was taken care of by a group of greeks and migrants who all worked with a great deal of enthusiasm, exceeding all initial expectations.
History: In 2001 we moved to the building in 13 Tsamadou St. In the process, we grew in number and increased our activities. The new Place hosts more groups and new ones are being created. The success of the Antiracist Festival brought us in touch with new crowds and collectives and the rise of the anti-globalization movement with new perspectives.
Instead, she, like her father before her, is heir to one of the Thirteen Orphans, who fled to our reality from the Lands Born from Smoke and Sacrifice, an alternate reality where magic works, as well as all of the different Chinese mythologies. Twelve of the Orphans were the advisors to an emperor overthrown in a coup, and the thirteenth was the emperor's young heir, from whom Albert Yu is descended, making him the rightful emperor.
Happy Birthday, Samuel Beckett
...a portrait of Samuel Beckett taken by Richard Avedon on April 13th 1979: exactly thirty years ago today. It is notable in that it offers us an image of the writer ten years before his death, but it's also notable for another reason: April 13th is Samuel Beckett's birthday...
"My 13-year-old son, who's a minor, who's supposed to be safe and secure in his classroom at school, is being interrogated without my knowledge or consent by the Secret Service," Robertson told Q13 Fox News reporter Dana Rebik. She only got wind of the interrogation because a school security guard tipped her off and arrived a half-hour after the agent had already begun questioning her son. Tacoma police were also present.
The school said they began without her because she didn't take their call seriously, which Robertson called a "blatant lie."
By the end of the interview, which occurred May 13, the agent told the boy he was free to go and wasn't in trouble.
What does the Bible say about the number thirteen?
Interestingly, there are thirteen passages that mention the specific number thirteen. There does not seem to be any significance to the number in the Bible, except as a number. Several times it is mentioned as the number of cities some of the families of the Levites got within other tribes' territories (5 times in Joshua, twice in 1 Chronicles); the Levites didn't get a territory of their own. Once it is mentioned as an age (Genesis 17:25). Another time it is the number of brothers and sons an individual had (1 Chronicles 26:17). It is the number of years Solomon took to build his palace (1 Kings 7:1). Ezekiel describes a gate that was thirteen cubits long (Ezekiel 40:11). And it was the number of young bulls offered on the first day of Succoth (the Feast of Booths) (Numbers 29:13-14). The number of bulls was reduced by one each day of the feast, down to seven.
Watcherwebsite Conspiracy Links to 9-11 2012 11:11 33 13 & Synchromystic Illuminated Esoteric Hermetic Symbols for the Mass Dreaming Mind Freemasons Illuminati Masonic Symbolism
HAPPY COLUMBUS DAY - It was on the 33rd day of his voyage, October 12, 1492, that Columbus made his landfall.
Freemasons trace their origins to October 13 - unlucky Friday 13 Jacques DeMolay Imprisoned - Freemasons and october13 - conspiracy - UFOs and 13 - ufos and antichrist, Anti-christ, satan, Ufo, UFOs, paranoid, New World Order Conspiracy, Ufo Bible cosmic, rapture UFOs &the Bible - End Time Prophecy & Conspiracy, Gog Magog, Ezekiel Prophecy, Jerusalem Freemasons, UFOs in Israel, Jerusalem & Antichrist, Melchizedek,Freemasons, Lucifer, Luciferians, Conspiracy, Masonic Conspiracy,
Freemasons trace their origin to October 13
"Let me just say briefly that his theory is that Freemasonry very likely began with the suppression of the Knights Templar in the year 1307. At that time the Templars were crushed in France, but by the delay of the King in enforcing the edict in England and Scotland many escaped. It is Mr. Robinson's theory that they went underground and had to devise a method of recognition enabling them to travel safely and to establish safe houses where they would haven opportunity to rest and refresh themselves. It also gave them the ability to recognize each other as members of the order! While the suppression of the Knights Templar may or may not have anything to with early Freemasonry, it certainly makes more sense to me that secret signs and words in this type of environment were far more necessary than with the simple workman plying his trade in building a cathedral. Just one more thought from this particular theory. The suppression of the Knights Templar occurred on October 13, 1307. The particular day of the week was a Friday and ever since that event Friday the 13th has been considered to be the unluckiest day of the year."
13 The Number of Rebellion: E.W. Bullinger writes: "As to the significance of thirteen, all are aware that it has come down to us as a number of ill omen. Many superstitions cluster around it, and various explanations are current concerning them. Unfortunately, those who go backwards to find a reason seldom go back far enough. The popular explanations do not, so far as we are aware go further back than the Apostles. But we must go back to the first occurrence of the number thirteen in order to discover the key to its significance. It occurs first in Gen. xiv. 4, where we read' Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer, and the thirteenth year they REBELLED. Hence every occurrence of the number thirteen, and likewise of every multiple of it, stamps that with which it stands in connection with rebellion, apostasy, defection, corruption, disintegration, & revolution, or some kindred idea." (Bullinger, E.W. Number in Scripture, Kregel Publications, (c)1967, p. 205).
This brings us back to the point of UNLUCKY 13 - this date seems to be a rallying point for Gnostic Brethren and the spiritual forces they worship. Watch for more strange occurrences as October 13 approaches.
33 IS ALSO a SIGNIFICANT NUMBER: 33 THE HIGHEST DEGREE OF LOWER LEVEL FREEMASONRY AND THE REQUIRED LEVEL TO BECOME A "SHRINER" UPPER LEVEL MEMBER OF THE ALGERIAN SHRINE - 13 & 33 ARE UNITED BY COLUMBUS SYMBOLISM - OCT 13, THE FOUNDATION DAY OF MODERN MASONRY, IS THE DAY AFTER
COLUMBUS DAY - It was on the 33rd day of his voyage, October 12, 1492, that Columbus made his landfall.
UFOs & 13 & 33 !!
# 1998 March 23. Director James Cameron was inducted as a 33rd Degree Freemason at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles within informal ceremony. Cameron's induction took place in a small room inside the Shrine while celebrities and movie stars were filing inside for the March 23, 1998 Academy Awards. Later, on his birthday Cameron formally became a 33rd Degree Freemason in the Supreme Council 33rd Degree Temple in Washington, D.C. Cameron is a leading light for the military -industrial-Hollywood complex, formerly the military-industrial complex that President Eisenhower had warned against in his 1961 Farewell Address. [website of origin: The James Cameron Conspiracy Theory]
# Solar Miracle of October 13 - Fatima Marian Apparitions - Similar to UFOs
# Freemasons Hassle Jacinta of Fatima Sun Disk October 13
# Georgia Marian Apparition Final Appearance October 13
# BVMs & UFOS (Blessed Virgin Mary sightings & Unidentified Flying Objects)
PHILADELPHIA, May 13  -A state police helicopter this evening dropped a bomb on a house occupied by an armed group after a 24-hour siege involving gun battles. A 90-minute shootout this morning came after a week of growing tension between the city and the group, known as Move. Residents in the western Philadelphia neighborhood had complained about the group for years. The only known survivors from within the house were a woman and a child. The fire spread to 50 to 60 other houses in the neighborhood, said the Fire Commissioner, William Richmond. He declared the fire under control about 11:40 P.M.
Smoke billows over homes on Osage Avenue after police bombed the MOVE home, May 13, 1985. The city rebuilt the 61 homes that were destroyed; the new homes have cracked foundations and have been deemed uninhabitable, resulting in an ongoing court battle. Bettmann/Corbis
Accounts differ on why the fire wasn't snuffed out, despite the dozen fire trucks surrounding the block. Ramona Africa, the sole surviving adult in the house, says police fired on MOVE members as they tried to escape the burning house. Police say the MOVE members ran in and out of the house firing at them. Police ordered their officers and fire fighters to stay back. What is clear is that four hours later, 61 houses on the block were gone, and everyone inside the MOVE house, except for Ramona Africa and a 13-year-old boy, was dead.
These two are said to be assassination teams from Britain and the U.S. Although there is no conclusive evidence, I am quite certain that both exist. You can find some information about Britain's Group 13 here and some information about the NSA's I3 here. The supposed head of Group 13 turned out to be someone who's background cannot be fully traced, not even by the British Parliament. This person and his allies also infiltrated the boards of many arms companies. When a company, like Astra, isn't useful anymore, they just give themselves huge salaries and run the company into the ground.
It is the number that carries the most occult significance.
Throughout Europe it has historically been regarded as an ill omen. In Norse mythology, the number 13 often signifies death. Today, in the United Kingdom, there exists a paramilitary unit called Group 13. The sole purpose of this ultra secretive unit is deniable assassination and it operates in the world of shadows. So little is known about them, that it is exceptionally hard to document its activities with any certainty.
One individual - a former intelligence undercover agent - contacted by The X Factor, recounted his story of a encounter with Group 13. Gary Murray, author of Enemies of the State, had decided to research Group 13 to write a book on them. He soon changed his mind. One day during his research phase he was forcibly dragged in to the back of a Transit van and had a gun stuck to his head. A voice told him it would be unwise to continue his project. Sensibly, he decided to abandon the project and instead write a book on an altogether different subject. Group 13 is generally believed to have evolved from former SAS soldiers and Security and Intelligence operatives who were once active in Northern Ireland during the mid to late nineteen seventies when a Labour Government was still in power. Fred Holroyd, a Captain in British Army Intelligence, served in Northern Ireland during this period. Holroyd was tasked with developing informers and other human intelligence sources connected to the IRA. It was inherently dangerous work, made a lot worse by a viscous turf battle between MI5 and MI6 for control of the Northern Ireland "patch." Matters grew increasingly nasty as "assets" for each of the two contending groups were tossed to the wolves. Holroyd, when interviewed by The X Factor, outlined some details of this dirty war, recalled incidents where bombs were placed by one of these factions and then roundly blamed on the IRA. Holroyd’s story and later disgraceful treatment at the hands of the British Army are recounted in his book "War without Dishonour." Holroyd’s account sheds light on the so called "Shoot to Kill" policy in Northern Ireland that resulted in the dysfunctional investigation of former senior police officer, John Stalker. This investigation ultimately resulted in the gripping feature film: Hidden Agenda.
Shayetet 13 (Hebrew: שייטת 13, lit. Flotilla 13) is the elite naval commando unit of the Israeli Navy. The unit (S'13) is considered one of the three main Israeli Special Forces units (along with Sayeret Matkal - the General Staff Reconnaissance Unit - and Shaldag Unit - the Air Force commando unit). S'13 is the unit that specializes in sea-to-land incursions, counter-terrorism, sabotage, maritime intelligence gathering, maritime hostage rescue, and boarding. The details of most Shayetet 13 missions are highly secrative, and the identities of operatives are kept classified. The unit is respected as among the best of the world’s special forces and is often compared to the US Navy Seals and Britain's Special Boat Service.
Watts Riots, Los Angeles 1965
August 13-16, 1965, the blacks of Los Angeles revolted. An incident between traffic police and pedestrians developed into two days of spontaneous riots. Despite increasing reinforcements, the forces of order were unable to regain control of the streets. By the third day the blacks had armed themselves by looting accessible gun stores, enabling them to fire even on police helicopters. It took thousands of police and soldiers, including an entire infantry division supported by tanks, to confine the riot to the Watts area, and several more days of street fighting to finally bring it under control. Stores were massively plundered and many were burned. Official sources listed 32 dead (including 27 blacks), more than 800 wounded and 3000 arrests.
NASA's Astronaut Group 13 (the Hairballs) was announced by NASA on 17 January 1990.
Some 20 years ago it came to my attention an old document, that I felt very significant! It was entitled «Declaration of the Political Existence and Independence of the Greek Nation». Let us see what this declaration says: «In the name of the Holy and Indivisible Trinity, the Greek Nation that in the last centuries was under the horrible Ottoman rule, not being able to bare any more the heavy and unprecedented tyranny, which we threw off with great sacrifices, proclaims today - through its legitimate delegates assembled here - before any humans and God, its political existence and Independence! Epidaurus January 1st 1822».
There is no doubt that this declaration constitutes the birth certificate of modern Greece! It fulfils all the criteria we set up and unambiguously states the creation of the modern country of Greece. The birthday of Greece is on the 13th of January (it is a Capricorn country).
The vast majority of Greeks though believe that their country was born on the 3rd of February 1830 - when by the London Treaty the major European powers recognised Greece. But a country is not actually born when the foreign forces decide it but when its own people will it! Otherwise, why should the United States birthday coincide with their unilateral Declaration of Independence (4 July 1776) and not with the date the foreign forces recognised the USA (on, 1783, by the Treaty of Versailles, France). No one has ever questioned the 4th of July as the date of birth of the United States. The September 3rd date - when the great powers acknowledged America - has been forgotten in the drawers of history and no one ever mentions it! Why should we apply in Greece’s similar case different criteria?
But let us see what a Greek professor in Political Sciences (George Dimakopoulos) says in respect to this issue. The «Declaration of the Political Existence and Independence of the Greek Nation» is the constitutive act of the Greek State, whose foundation, legally and historically has to be regarded as from January 1st, 1822 (old calendar, January 13 on the new one). Points of views that appoint it to a different day and connecting it with the diplomatic recognition of the Greek State from the foreign forces are not only contrary to the applied national law, but to the international law too, as it is generally accepted that a diplomatic recognition cannot constitute a foundation act for a State»!
Baltimore peace groups have tried to dialogue with representatives of the National Security Agency since 1996. See James Bamford's book BODY OF SECRETS, which details the agency's response to these requests. In June 2006, the Pledge of Resistance–Baltimore sent a letter to the NSA director, Lt. Gen. Keith Alexander, seeking a meeting.
A great concern is the NSA's involvement in the illegal war and occupation of Iraq. Since Gen. Alexander failed to respond to the letter, members of the Pledge intend to march to the NSA to seek a meeting to discuss the illegal activities perpetrated by the government agency.
On Saturday, July 8, 2006, at 11:30 in the morning, twenty-five activists gathered near the National Business Parkway in Anne Arundel County, Maryland, and began a march towards the NSA. Once they were walking along Route 32, they were challenged by a Maryland State Police officer who ordered them to turn back. The group continued its trek to the NSA despite the trooper's threat to give everyone a citation.
However, when the demonstrators reached a public road near the entrance to the NSA, security confronted them and indicated no protesting is permitted at Fort Meade. Officers also told them that their cars were in the process of being towed. Drivers had to return to the Business Park to rescue their vehicles. Demonstrators were then given a document entitled “Protests, Picketing and Other Similar Demonstrations” dated May 12, 2005. This blatant denial of First Amendment rights was incredible, as Pledge members have held four different demonstrations at Fort Meade since that date. Thirteen activists who refused to relinquish the signs they were carrying were given citations charging them with “Entering into military facility for purposes prohibited by law” and then ordered to leave the area.
Those charged include Baltimore activists Maria Allwine, Ellen Barfield, Susan Crane, Jay Gillen, Max Obuszewski and Ed Boyd, the Green Party candidate for governor of Maryland. Others charged are Jean Athey, Montgomery County, MD; Eden Coughlin, Brooklyn, NY; Pat Elder, Bethesda, MD; Ed Kinane, Syracuse, NY; Eve Tetaz, Washington, D.C.; and Father Louis Vitale, California.
COURT:At January 25, 2007 motions hearing, all charges were dismissed against Maria Allwine, Ellen Barfield, Susan Crane, Jay Gillen, Max Obuszewski, Ed Boyd, Jean Athey, Eden Coughlin, Pat Elder, Ed Kinane, Eve Tetaz and Fr. Louis Vitale in the U.S. Federal District Court in Baltimore, MD.
The boron group is the series of elements in group 13 (IUPAC style) in the periodic table. The group has previously also been referred to as the earth metals and the triels, from the Latin tri, three, stemming from the naming convention of this group as Group IIIB. These elements are characterized by having three electrons in their outer energy levels (valence layers). Boron is considered a metalloid, and the rest are considered metals of the poor metals groups.
The boron group consists of boron (B), aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), thallium (Tl), and ununtrium (Uut) (unconfirmed).
Boron occurs sparsely probably because of disruption of its nucleus by bombardment with subatomic particles produced from natural radioactivity. Aluminum occurs widely on earth and in fact, it is the third most abundant element in the earth's crust (7.4%).
13th Floor Elevators
Proposition 13, officially titled the "People's Initiative to Limit Property Taxation," was a ballot initiative to amend the constitution of the state of California. The initiative was enacted by the voters of California on June 6, 1978. It would eventually be upheld as constitutional by the United States Supreme Court in the case of Nordlinger v. Hahn, 505 U.S. 1 (1992). Proposition 13 is embodied in Article 13A of the California Constitution.
The most significant portion of the act is the first paragraph, which capped real estate taxes:
“SECTION 1. (a) The maximum amount of any ad valorem tax on real property shall not exceed One percent (1%) of the full cash value of such property. The one percent (1%) tax to be collected by the counties and apportioned according to law to the districts within the counties.”
The proposition's passage resulted in a cap on property tax rates in the state, reducing them by an average of 57%. In addition to lowering property taxes, the initiative also contained language requiring a two-thirds majority in both legislative houses for future increases in all state tax rates or amounts of revenue collected, including income tax rates. It also requires two-thirds vote majority in local elections for local governments wishing to raise special taxes.
Proposition 13 received an enormous amount of publicity, not only in California, but throughout the United States.
Passage of the initiative presaged a "taxpayer revolt" throughout the country that is sometimes thought to have contributed to the election of Ronald Reagan to the presidency in 1980. However, of 30 anti-tax ballot measures that year, only 13 passed.
Summary of ALL large world government global terror events; each visibly containing numerics [3 & 11] & 33 (the big one; Jesus's age/top Scottish Rite Freemasonic degree) and displaying the overuse of the world government fetished power numbers: 3 & 7 & 11 & 13 & 33 & 39 ). Read closely. Every date is true!
"11/11"/1918 at "11"am World War I was officially ended - known as “Armistice Day”. In 19"33"
freemasonic elite pyramid symbol is placed on back of US dollar. In 1945, Enola Gay Mission #"13" drops an atomic bomb on Hiroshima on the "33"rd Earth parallel on August 6th, 3 days later, another was dropped on Nagasaki on the 9th. JFK Assassination: "11/22"/1963 sums to 33 & was exactly 13 months to day after JFK's "13" days of October Cuban Missile Crisis speech on 10/"22"/1962. On "September 11th", 1971 Nikita Kruschev lost his life under mysterious circumstances. "11" Israelis are sacrificed in the Munich terror event; the games ended on "September 11th", 1972. On "September 11th", 1973 the USA participated in a military coup of Chile's president. Pope John Paul I was actually assassinated on the "33"rd day of his popehood in 1978. The Iranian Hostage Crisis lasted exactly 444 days and ended on "1/19"/1981 (a reversed 9-11!) On "11/9"/1989 (Another 9/11 reversed!) The Berlin Wall is opened up. Waco Tx Massacre took place exactly "39" days after "3/11"/1993 Janet Reno Attorney General appointment & the 9 year anniversary of Gorbechev appointment & also Oklahoma City blast, OK: April 19th, 1993/5. "8/31"/1997 Princess Diana Assassination date contains a reversed "13" and the date sums 8+31 to "39". World Trade Centers towers built to be an 11 & 110 stories tall. 9+1+1 is the core 11. 911 FLIGHT #'s were all coded: Flight "11", Flight 175 summing to 13, a 13x3 or "39" reversal for Flight "93", and 7x11 (Flight "77") into the pentagon. The 9-11 terror event commenced at 3 minutes to 11 to 9am on the 60th anniversary of pentagon ground-breaking of "9/11"/1941; the day globalist kingpin conspirator David Rockefeller was holding the silver shovel in DC & also on "11"th anniversary of Bush I world government speech to congress on "9/11"/1990! Building #7 was obviously blown up at 5:20pm! G.W. Bush then states the next morning the US flag should be flown half-staff for "11" days. The nearby United Nations building was constructed to be "39" (3 13s) stories tall. Rudy Giuliani was knighted by the queen of England on February "13th", 2002 for his cover-up help. The Luciferian WTC light ritual used 88 (8 11s) upturned searchlamps and held on "3/11"/2002 for "33" nights w/lights turned off at "11pm" each night. "4/11"/2002 International Criminal Court is ratified in the Hague. NYC lottery balls come up "911" on "9/11"/2002 as well as Chicago's S&P index chimed in at "911.00".
”11”/“13”/2002 Bush Jr. commissions "Homeland Security" department. "11/22"/2002 In Nigeria more than 100 people killed with attack aimed at the contestants of the Miss World contest. "2/1"/2003 Columbia Space Shuttle STS 107 intentional fireball burning over "33"rd parallel on "11"th anniversary of Bush I UN/NWO speech (2/1/1992) 2/1 sums to 3 - vice president Dick Cheney was hunting quail right below the sacrificial shuttle streak that morning so he could see it happen. Note: Space Shuttles blast off from launchpad "39a" or "39b" after taxiing down runway #"33" at Florida’s Kennedy Space Center (and those numerics are no coincidences!) Also 2/7/2003 "Columbia" (South America) night club blast kills "33" clubgoers. "3/3"/2003 UN World Prayer Center calls everyone to pray simultaneously at "3:3"0pm. "3/11"/2003 USS Cole bomb suspects/patsies are freed. "6/11"/2003 - A large Jerusalem bus blast kills 18. "3/11"/2004 Madrid Commuter Train Blast massacres "191" (an 11 sum) / same day as purchase of Sears Tower by Larry Silverstein & partners, deal was valued at $"911" million; dual events occurred this day, as that day was also 93x11 days after 9-11-2001. "5/11"/2004 video of American GI Nick Berg beheaded released. "6/11"/2004 Bush declared National day of mourning due to Ronald Reagan burial. Reagan was 93. On "9/3"/2004, signed like Flight 93, Russian troops storm Beslan school at "9:3"0am (93) and massacre "33"4 of "13"00 (33 & 13) civilians hostages. That was also a terror set-up; mainly to compromise Vladimir Putin, a Russian "911". On "11/9"/2004 (another 9-11 reversed!) U.S. forces destroy Falluja, Iraq. Yasser Arafat was poisoned on "11/11"/2004 and pronounced officially dead at "3:3"0am. "7/7"/2005 London Tube/BusTerror were timed for 8:49am, or 11 minutes to 9am. London Big Ben clock stuck at 22:07GMT (10:07pm) London time on 5/27(3^3)/2005 signaling subsequent "7/22"/2005 Cairo Nightclub Blast killing "88"(8x11). Exactly "11" days short of "3" years from first - the 2nd Bali Indonesia Bombing on Oct 12th, 2005, occurred; the 1st was Oct 1st, 2002; which was 1 year, 1 month, & 1 day after 9-11-2001. Amman Jordan Train Blasts were scheduled for "11/9"/2005 ( and yet another 9/11 reversed!!!) murdering 38 (a 3+8=11 sum). "7/11"/2006 Mumbai India Globalist Train Blast that killed 209 (again, an 11 sum) with "7" bombs that were scheduled "11" minutes from the first blast to the last. On July 11, 2007, "7/11"/2007, the CIA published its "National Intelligence Estimate" pointing to an imminent al"CIAda" attack on America.
It is entirely obvious. The course of world history has been dramatically patterned and consistently marked with (3, 7, 11, 13), & (21, 33, 39), & (9-11, 11-9) numerics over the past century. All major global terror events and the biggest political assassinations have employed this pattern.
Notovitch claimed that, at the lamasery or monastery of Hemis, he learned of the "Life of Saint Issa, Best of the Sons of Men." His story, with the text of the "Life," was published in French in 1894 as La vie inconnue de Jesus Christ. It was translated into English, German, Spanish, and Italian.
Notovitch's account of his discovery of the work is that he had been laid up with a broken leg at the monastery of Hemis. There he prevailed upon the chief lama, who had told him of the existence of the work, to read to him, through an interpreter, the somewhat detached verses of the Tibetan version of the " Life of Issa," which was said to have been translated from the Pali.
Notovitch says that he himself afterward grouped the verses " in accordance with the requirements of the narrative." As published by Notovitch, the work consists Of 244 short paragraphs, arranged in fourteen chapters. A translation of the text that Notovitch claimed to find can be found here.
The otherwise undocumented name "Issa" most closely resembles the Arabic name Isa (عيسى), used in the Koran to refer to Jesus.
This Hemis Tibetan monastery was along the silk route, when Ladakh was formerly part of Tibet, before India became a nation, and to this day, monks who live here claim that "Issa" was a former student.
The "Life of Issa" begins with an account of Israel in Egypt, its deliverance by Moses, its neglect of religion, and its conquest by the Romans. Then follows an account of the Incarnation. At the age of thirteen the divine youth, rather than take a wife, leaves his home to wander with a caravan of merchants to India (Sindh), to study the laws of the great Buddhas.
Issa is welcomed by the Jains, but leaves them to spend six years among the Brahmins, at Juggernaut, Benares, and other places, studying the Vedas and teaching all castes alike. The Brahmins oppose him in this, and he denounces them and their sacred books, especially condemning caste and idolatry. When they plan to put him to death, he flees to the Buddhists, and spends six years among them, learning Pali and mastering their religious texts. He goes among the pagans, warning them against idolatry and teaching a high morality. Then he visits Persia and preaches to the Zoroastrians.
At twenty-nine Issa returns to his own country and begins to preach. He visits Jerusalem, where Pilate is apprehensive about him. The Jewish leaders, however, are also apprehensive about his teachings yet he continues his work for three years. He is finally arrested and put to death for blasphemy, for claiming to be the son of God. His followers are persecuted, but his disciples carry his message out over the world.
In the Notovich translation, the section regarding Pontius Pilate is of particular note; in this version of the events around the death of Jesus, the Sanhedrin go to Pilate and argue to save the life of Jesus, and they are the ones who 'wash their hands' of his death, instead of the Roman Pilate.
The previous essays under the heading "The Sign of the Sun" illustrated how the gematria values of Jesus (888, 8880) and the Sun (318, 388) were connected to each other in so many ways which promoted the belief that Jesus was the incarnation of Helios the Sun. What are the odds that the gematria values of the twelve apostles would show the exact same relationship? Would it be another incredible coincidence? ... or would it be evidence that the names of The Twelve were "made up" so that their isopsephia values would add up to some predetermined number! All the evidence points to this conclusion! The complete sacred geometry story of how the twelve apostles were "made" (Mark 3:13-19) is revealed in this book. The chart below shows how the gematria value of the names of the twelve apostles is connected to Helios the Sun.
[ ... ]
The story of how Jesus "made The Twelve" reveals thirteen identically sized circles, twelve by their 999 unit circumference, the thirteenth by itΆs 318 unit diameter. This sacred geometry story reveals Jesus as the 13th Sun in spectacular fashion.
A Native American legend that told of a collection of 13 Crystal Skulls that were said to hold the details of mankind's true purpose and destiny. A variety of Crystal Skulls have been discovered over the years, some dating back thousands of years. Despite efforts to combine 13 of these skulls in one place, no evidence of the knowledge said to be contained within them has ever been found.
364 Weekdays of the Year equal 13 Months of 4 Weeks or 28 Days each.
Spanish Astronomers Claim Dwarf Sun Beyond Pluto
Scientists believe that the minimum mass needed to ignite a sun is about 13 times the known mass of the planet Jupiter -- written as "13MJ." If the mass is lower than this, the pressure in the core is not enough to ignite and the sphere will be hot ball of gas called a "brown dwarf."
The new NASA moon mission patch again gives us much occult and synchromystic (my new word for meaningful coincidence with mystical connotation) material to investigate. If you're ready, let's go!
Firstly the obvious triangular design gives us the sacred number 3, repeated in the 3 stars of Orion's belt and the also reminds us of a pyramid.
Then we have the number of stars in total giving us the holy number 13 (the twelve months and/or signs of the zodiac plus the sun). Here we should also remember that with the new media revelation of our solar system having 12 planets, if we include the sun, we get 13.
13 is also the name of a Hollywood movie soon to be released.
Which brings to mind...
The Thirteen Buddhas ( Jp. 十三仏 jusanbutsu) is a purely Japanese grouping of various important Buddhist deities. The deities are, in fact, mostly not Buddhas at all, but also include assorted bodhisattvas and Wisdom Kings.
The Thirteen Buddhas are an important part of a traditional Japanese Buddhist funeral service, with each "Buddha" having a corresponding memorial service. The thirteen in Japanese and Sanskrit and the corresponding date of their service after the death are:
Fudo Myo-o (Acala), 7th day
Shaka (Shakyamuni), 14th day
Monju (Manjusri), 21st day
Fugen (Samantabhadra), 28th day
Jizo (Ksitigarbha), 35th day
Miroku (Maitreya), 42nd day
Yakushi (Bhaisajyaguru), 49th day
Kannon (Avalokitesvara), 100th day
Seishi (Mahasthamaprapta), 1st anniversary
AmidaAmida can mean: Amida is the Japanese name of a popular Buddhist deity. Amida A beetle genus An alternative spelling of Amidah, the central prayer of the Jewish services. (Amitabha), 2nd anniversary
Ashuku (Akshobhya), 6th anniversary
Dainichi (Vairocana), 12th anniversary
Kokuzo (Akasagarbha), 32nd anniversary
Maimonides: The Thirteen Principles
The great codifier of Torah law and Jewish philosophy, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon ("Maimonides" also known as "The Rambam"), compiled what he refers to as the Shloshah Asar Ikkarim, the "Thirteen Fundamental Principles" of the Jewish faith, as derived from the Torah. Maimonides refers to these thirteen principles of faith as "the fundamental truths of our religion and its very foundations." The Thirteen Principles of Jewish faith are as follows:
1. Belief in the existence of the Creator, who is perfect in every manner of existence and is the Primary Cause of all that exists.
2. The belief in G-d's absolute and unparalleled unity.
3. The belief in G-d's non-corporeality, nor that He will be affected by any physical occurrences, such as movement, or rest, or dwelling.
4. The belief in G-d's eternity.
5. The imperative to worship G-d exclusively and no foreign false gods.
6. The belief that G-d communicates with man through prophecy.
7. The belief in the primacy of the prophecy of Moses our teacher.
8. The belief in the divine origin of the Torah.
9. The belief in the immutability of the Torah.
10. The belief in G-d's omniscience and providence.
11. The belief in divine reward and retribution.
12. The belief in the arrival of the Messiah and the messianic era.
13. The belief in the resurrection of the dead.
It is the custom of many congregations to recite the Thirteen Articles, in a slightly more poetic form, beginning with the words Ani Maamin--"I believe"--every day after the morning prayers in the synagogue.
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band is the most important rock & roll album ever made, an unsurpassed adventure in concept, sound, songwriting, cover art and studio technology by the greatest rock & roll group of all time. From the title song's regal blasts of brass and fuzz guitar to the orchestral seizure and long, dying piano chord at the end of "A Day in the Life," the thirteen tracks on Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band are the pinnacle of the Beatles' eight years as recording artists. John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr were never more fearless and unified in their pursuit of magic and transcendence.
SIRENIA - "The 13th Floor" album trailerLabyrinth13: True Tales of the Occult, Crime & Conspiracy
Inside Labyrinth13, you will find true tales of bizarre coincidences, strange occult happenings, unusual paranormal events, including phantom black dogs, vampires in America, werewolves and a haunted island, weird hippie cults, LSD murders, mind control, and unsolved crimes
By the next morning, the news of the crime had broken out all over France and French newspapers featured daily updates on the case. One journal, in an interesting publicity stunt, had a pair of twin brothers, Jerome and Jean Tharaud, report on the case. In their column they would creepily refer to themselves as “I” rather than “we” and would sign themselves simply: J et J. The French public was divided on their opinion of what the fate of the Papin sisters should be; while a slight majority called for their heads, a smaller, but significant minority sympathized with the sisters, given their understanding of the miserable working conditions so common for domestic laborers. Among these sympathizers were many of the intellectual elite of the day including Jean Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir and Jean Genet, who held the crime up as an example of class warfare.
The funeral for the Lancelin women was very well attended and was accompanied by infantry. However, the trial of the Papin sisters the following September, was even better attended and police were needed to control the crowds at the courthouse during its 13-hour duration.
A fictional character on the Fox medical drama House. She is portrayed by Olivia Wilde. She is part of the new diagnostic team assembled by Gregory House after the disbanding of his previous team in the third season finale. The name "Thirteen" comes from the character's introduction: House assigned her the number during an extended competition for the job and persistently used it in reference to her; she did not correct him with her real name, and the nickname stuck. Her last name was not revealed on the show until the end of the fourth season, when it is spoken by hospital administrator Lisa Cuddy in "House's Head", to which House jests that "She [Cuddy] doesn't even know your [Thirteen's] name." Beginning with the fifth season, she is regularly referred to as "Dr. Hadley", although as of "Lucky Thirteen", her first name has not been spoken on the show.
Paradoxically, at the proper moment of his agony, John Paul II or better John Paul Le Grand, claims " I am happy ". He is certainly right because he had the genius to bet on the lively forces of tomorrow, that is on the young people to whom he reserved his all last words.
In the young people, he planted his tree from which the best fruits are to come, making the Pope's work ceaselessly renewable. What a big visionary! It is important to underline that mysteriously the life and the death of John Paul II are both strongly marked by the number 13!
First, the date of its death corresponds exactly to the numerical code 13:
Death on April 2nd, 2005 or 04/02/2005 4 + 2 + 2 + 5 = 13
Even the precise hour of its death wears the mark 13:
Death arisen at 9:37 pm or 21h 37 the Vatican time 2 + 1 + 3 + 7 = 13
Year week at his death : 13th week of year 2005 (Death arisen at the start of April)
Age at his death 85 years (1920-2005) 8 + 5 = 13
His successor Benedict XVI (Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger) is the 265th Pontiff of the Roman Catholic Church
265 2 + 6 + 5 = 13
Week day of the appearances at Fatima of his idol Mary: always the 13th of the month
Karol Józef Wojtyla (Pope John Paul II) was born on May 18, 1920 :
05/18/1920 5 + 1 + 8 + 1 + 9 + 2 = 26 = 13 x 2
In the numerology Starter 13, that is A=13, B=14, C=15, ... , Y=37, Z=38, we have:
Karol Józef Wojtyla = 429 = 13 x 33
John Paul II = 193 + 2 = 195 = 13 x 15
His mother died on April 13th, 1929 .
October 13, 1946 Karol Wojtyla became Sub-diaconate
On January 13, 1964, he was nominated Archbishop of Cracow by Pope Paul VI, who made him a cardinal June 26 [13 x 2], 1967 .
Elected Pope on October 16, 1978 , at the age of 58 years 5 + 8 = 13
John Paul II was first non-Roman Pope since 455 years 455 = 35 x 13
The attempt against the Pope Jean-Paul II took place on May 13th, 1981 , at the place Saint Pierre.
The young turk Mehmet Alì Agca who made an attempt on the Pope's life has 13 letters in his full name.
His pontificate lasted 26 years, that is 13 x 2.
He leaves behind him 117 cardinals-voters who will have to choose his successor by two-thirds majority; 117 = 9 x 13
On April 4th, 2005, was held the very first meeting of the cardinals after the death of the Pope; the number of cardinals present in this important session was 65, that is 5 x 13.
Cardinals have fixed to April 18 the starting date of the Conclave for election of the new pope, at the Sistine Chapel (13 letters); April 18 or 04/18 4 + 1 + 8 = 13
The election of the new Pope Benedict XVI (born Jozef Ratzinger on April 16, 1927) was announced on April 19, 2005 by:
* White smoke began to pour from the Sistine Chapel's chimney at 5:50 p.m. (Vatican time); but at that time no bells are heard confirming a pope's election, contrary to the planned simultaneous occurence.
5:50 p.m. or 17h 50 1 + 7 + 5 + 0 = 13
* At 6:04 p.m., about 15 minutes after the smoke began to rise out, the bells of the basilica began to peal.
6:04 p.m. or 18h 04 1 + 8 + 0 + 4 = 13
Benedict XVI, elected at age 78 , is the oldest cardinal to become pope since Clement XII in 1730, who, like Ratzinger, was elected at age 78.
78 = 13 x 6
At the time of the 2005 Conclave, Ratzinger was one of only 14 remaining cardinals appointed by Paul VI, and one of only three of those under the age of 80 and thus eligible to participate in that conclave.
In the basic ordinal numerology (A=1, B=2, C=3, ... , Y=25, Z=26):
Benedict = 62 and Benedict XVI = 62 + 16 = 78 = 13 x 6
French Benoît = 65 = 13 x 5
Besides, in Starter 13 alphanumeric encoding (A=13, B=14, C=15, ... , Y=37, Z=38):
Josephum Ratzinger = 429 = 13 x 33 (Josephum is Latin for Joseph)
Ratzinger was appointed Archbishop of Munich on May 28, 1977, and he was subsequently made a Cardinal by Pope Paul VI on June 27, 1977.
* May 28, 1977 or 05/28/1977 5 + 2 + 8 + 1 + 9 + 7 + 7 = 39 = 13 x 3
* June 27, 1977 or 06/27/1977 6 + 2 + 7 + 1 + 9 + 7 + 7 = 39 = 13 x 3
His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI is the first German pontiff since 949 years; the last German pope being Victor II (born Gebhard, Count of Calw, pope from 1055 to 1057).
949 = 13 x 73
Before his first appearance at the balcony of Saint Peter's Basilica after becoming pope, he was announced by the Cardinal Medina Estévez, protodeacon of the College of Cardinals.
Medina Estévez = 13 letters
On Friday 13th May 2005, spoking in Latin at the basilica of St John Lateran, Pope Benedict XVI announced that the rule of waiting five years after a potential saint's death before the initial process of beatification can start was to be waived in the case of his predecessor John Paul II [see Benedict XVI paves way for John Paul to be made a saint, by Peter Popham in The Independent News Paper and Vatican, Pope'speech to the Clergy of Rome (May 13, 2005), DISCORSO DI SUA SANTITÀ BENEDETTO XVI AL CLERO DI ROMA ]. Pope Benedict's decision to accelerate the process for beatifying Karol Wojtyla came on the 24th anniversary of the attempted assassination of John Paul II by Mehmet Alì Agca, which also happens to be the saint's day of the Madonna of Fatima, whose devotion was close to the late pontiff's heart.
Dutch statisticians have established that Friday 13th, a date regarded in many countries as inauspicious, is actually safer than an average Friday.
A study published today by the Dutch Centre for Insurance Statistics (CVS) showed that fewer accidents and reports of fire and theft occur when the 13th of the month falls on a Friday than on other Fridays.
"I find it hard to believe that it is because people are preventatively more careful or just stay home, but statistically speaking, driving is a little bit safer on Friday 13th," CVS statistician Alex Hoen told the Verzekerd insurance magazine.
In the last two years, Dutch insurers received reports of an average 7800 traffic accidents each Friday, the CVS study said.
But the average figure when the 13th fell on a Friday was just 7500.
There were also fewer incidents of fire and theft, although the average value of losses on Fridays 13th was slightly higher.
A trecena is a 13-day period used in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican calendars. The 260-day calendar (the tonalpohualli) was divided into 20 trecenas. Trecena is derived from the Spanish chroniclers and translates to 'a group of thirteen' in the same way that a dozen (or in Spanish docena) relates to the number twelve. It is associated with the Aztecs, but is called different names in the calendars of the Maya, Zapotec, Mixtec, and others of the region.
Many surviving Mesoamerican codices, such as Codex Borbonicus, are divinitory calendars, based on the 260-day year, with each page representing one trecena.
The 13-day period Xochitl (Flower) is ruled by Huehuecoyotl, Old Coyote, the Trickster, god of deception. This trecena signifies the sacred role of the jester: revealing the truth of the old ways by treating them as irreverantly as the gods do, the jester treats nothing as sacred and so points out the sacredness of everything. These are 13 days profoundly influenced by creativity and playfulness: music, dance, art and poetry are simply masks worn by the jester to tear away the away the masks of civilization. The trickster-jester-clown is the final mask of human beings: at one with the divine absurdity of the world, the mortal creator moves toward becoming an immortal force of nature. These are good days to make things; bad days to fear what others might think.
The 13-day period Miquiztli (Death) is ruled by Tonatiuh. This trecena signifies the vast cosmological forces at play in the lives of human beings. These 13 days are all influenced by transformative powers of unknown dimension, origin and intent. The days of this trecena often pass by unnoticed since they are not remarkable until the elementals turn their attention to this place, the first of the thirteen skies; when this occurs, though, the whole of the world changes. It is during these days that the song of the Old Ones may best be heard. These are good days to fulfill old obligations; bad days to go back on one's word.
Trecenas are thirteen-day periods in the Tzolkin. Each Trecena starts with the Number 1, but with a different Day Glyph. As a wave of the Thirteen Heavens, the underlying energy is governed by the First Day Glyph of the Trecena and influences all thirteen successive Day Glyphs. Being aware of the predominant energy of the First Day of the Trecena, we can align our intentions with that energy and allow our goals to manifest.
Another representation of the Trecena is that of a creative wave beginning at 1 and ending at 13, with the numbers 6, 7 and 8 representing the crest of the wave. The crest could be interpreted as a strong influential energy, although the underlying influence on the Trecena would still rest in the beginning.
The Thirteen Years' War (also called the War of the Cities) started out as an uprising by Prussian cities and the local nobility with the goal of gaining independence from the Teutonic Knights. The Prussian Confederation asked the Polish king for help and offered to incorporate Prussia into Poland. When the king agreed, war between Poland and the Teutonic Knights broke out. It ended with the Second Treaty of Thorn in 1466 (also known as the Peace of Torun), an agreement between the Teutonic Knights and Poland, which, although negotiated with help from the Papal legate, was not confirmed by the Pope.
The Thirteen Treasures of Britain were as follows:
Dyrnwyn the sword of Rhydderch Hael ; if any man drew it except himself, it burst into a flame from the cross to the point, and all who asked it received it; but because of this property all shunned it. and therefore was he called Rhydderch the Generous.
The basket of Gwyddno Garanhir; if food for one man were put into it, when opened it would be found to contain food for one hundred.
The horn of Bran Galed (the Niggard); whatever drink might be wished for was found inside it.
The chariot of Morgan Mwynvawr (the Wealthy); whoever sat in it would be immediately wheresoever he wished.
The halter of Clydno Eiddyn , which was in a staple below the feet of his bed; and whatever horse he wished for in it, he would find it there.
The knife of Llawfrodded Farchawg (the Horseman); which would serve four and-twenty men at meat all at once.
The cauldron of Dyrnwch the Giant ; if food were put in it to boil for a coward it would never be boiled, but if food were put in it for a brave man it would be boiled forthwith.
The whetstone of Tudwal Tudelud ; if the sword of a brave man were sharpened thereon, and any one were wounded therewith, he would be sure to die, but if it were that of a coward that was sharpened on it, he would be none the worse.
The garment of Padarn Beisrudd (Red-Coat); if a man of gentle birth put it on, it suited him well, but if a churl it would not fit him.
The pan and
The platter of Rhegynydd Ysgolhaig (the Cleric); whatever food was required was found therein.
The chessboard of Gwenddolau ; when the men were placed upon it, they would play of themselves. The chessboard was of gold, and the men of silver.
The mantle of Arthur; whosoever was beneath it could see everything, while no one could see him.
They were taken by Merlin to his cave for safekeeping until the time when they are again needed.
Thirteen Senses are a band from Cornwall, England. As of July 2004, they have released 3 singles: "Thru The Glass", "Do No Wrong" and "Into The Fire". The latter two reaching the UK Top 40.
The raw EEG has usually been described in terms of frequency bands: Gamma greater than 30(Hz) BETA (13-30Hz), ALPHA (8-12 Hz), THETA (4-8 Hz), and DELTA(less than 4 Hz).
For example : Our brain uses 13Hz (high alpha or low beta) for "active" intelligence. Often we find individuals who exhibit learning disabilities and attention problems having a deficiency of 13Hz activity in certain brain regions that effects the ability to easily perform sequencing tasks and math calculations.
The 13th chakra is deep blue-indigo coloured. When this chakra is working in harmony more psychic and spiritual energies will be available for us. We open channels of healing and will be able to help others on a physical and mental plane. This chakra will let us help us srengthen our abilities of mediumship. Once activated it will enable us to communicate with higher-dimensional beings like the Ashtar Command, the Ascended Masters and/or Archangels.
This chakra is connected with an immense awareness of our own power and ability.
The dreamachine (or dream machine) is a stroboscopic flicker device that produces visual stimuli. Artist Brion Gysin and scientist Ian Sommerville created the dreamachine after reading William Grey Walter's book, The Living Brain.
In its original form, a dreamachine is made from a cylinder with slits cut in the sides. The cylinder is placed on a record turntable and rotated at 78 or 45 revolutions per minute. A light bulb is suspended in the center of the cylinder and the rotation speed allows the light to come out from the holes at a constant frequency, situated between 8 and 13 pulses per second. This frequency range corresponds to alpha waves, electrical oscillations normally present in the human brain while relaxing.
A dreamachine is "viewed" with the eyes closed: the pulsating light stimulates the optical nerve and alters the brain's electrical oscillations. The "viewer" experiences increasingly bright, complex patterns of color behind their closed eyelids. The patterns become shapes and symbols, swirling around, until the "viewer" feels surrounded by colors. It is claimed that viewing a dreamachine allows one to enter a hypnagogic state. This experience may sometimes be quite intense, but to escape from it, one needs only to open one's eyes.
A dreamachine may be dangerous for people with photosensitive epilepsy or other nervous disorders. It is thought that one out of 10,000 adults will experience a seizure while viewing the device; about twice as many children will have a similar ill effect.
Günter Wallraff (born October 1, 1942 in Burscheid near Cologne) is a famous German writer and undercover journalist.
Wallraff came to prominence thanks to his striking journalistic research methods and several major books on lower class working conditions and tabloid journalism. This style of research is based on what the reporter experiences personally after covertly becoming part of the subgroup under investigation. Wallraff would construct a fictional identity so that he was not recognisable as a journalist. In this way, he created books which denounce what he considers to be social injustices and which try to provide readers with new insights into the way in which society works.
Life and work
Wallraff first took up this kind of investigative journalism in 1969 when he published 13 unerwünschte Reportagen ("13 undesired reports") in which he described what he experienced when acting the parts of an alcoholic, a tramp, and a worker in a chemicals factory.
He traveled to Greece in May 1974 at the time of the Ioannides dictatorship. While in Syntagma Square, he protested against human right violations. He was arrested and tortured by the police, as he did not carry, on purpose, any papers on him that could identify him as a foreigner. After his identity was revealed, Wallraff was convicted and sentenced to 14 months in jail. He was released in August, after the end of the dictatorship.
An estimated 200,000 farmers in India have committed suicide in the past 13 years, or, roughly one every thirty minutes
[ ... ]
It was later determined that these genetically modified seeds use up to 13 times as much pesticide as conventional seeds and require fertilizer and irrigation systems, meaning farmers are no longer able to rely solely on rainfall.
The 'Thirteenth Amendment' may refer to the:
Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution - outlaws slavery.
Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan - stripped the president of many of his reserve powers.
Thirteenth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland - specified that the prohibition of abortion would not limit freedom of travel.
On January 18, 1810, Republican Senator Philip Reed introduced a constitutional amendment addressing the acceptance of titles of nobility by American citizens. It was referred to a select committee of three, and twice afterwards to a larger committee of five, which submitted several versions of the amendment to the Senate. The amendment was approved by the Senate by a vote of 19 to 5 on April 27, 1810, in the following form:
If any citizen of the United States shall accept, claim, receive, or retain, any title of nobility, or honor, or shall, without the consent of Congress, accept any present, pension, office or emolument, of any kind whatever, from any Emperor, King, Prince or foreign Power, such person shall cease to be a citizen of the United States, and shall be incapable of holding any office of trust or profit under them, or either of them.
The House of Representatives then approved the amendment on May 1, 1810 by a vote of 87 to 3, and TONA was submitted to the states for ratification.
No debates about the amendment are recorded in the Annals of Congress or contemporary newspapers, so the reasons for its proposal are a matter of some speculation. One theory is that TONA was a reflection of the general animosity to foreigners evident in the United States before the War of 1812. This animosity manifested itself in a number of fashions. Henry Clay, for example, only with difficulty succeeded in limiting a Kentucky bill prohibiting the citation of British court decisions or treatises to works written after July 4, 1776. A similar bill was passed in Pennsylvania in 1810. Georgia's constitution of 1777, in force until 1789, excluded any person who held or claimed a title of nobility from voting or holding office. It is therefore understandable, Ames states, that in addition to finding nearly unanimous support in Congress, TONA found strong support in some states, for example passing both houses of the Pennsylvania legislature unanimously.
Another theory attributes TONA to the reaction against the involvement of Napoleon Bonaparte's younger brother, Jerome Bonaparte, in American public life the preceding decade. His American wife from 1803 until 1806, Elizabeth Patterson, was from a prominent Baltimore Republican family, and in 1809 was granted an annuity by the French government with hints of a title to follow. Republican Representative Nathaniel Macon of North Carolina is recorded to have said, when voting on TONA, that "he considered the vote on this question as deciding whether or not we were to have members of the Legion of Honor in this country."
The "missing" 13th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States reads as follows:
"If any citizen of the United States shall accept, claim, receive, or retain any title of nobility or honour, or shall without the consent of Congress, accept and retain any present, pension, office, or emolument of any kind whatever, from any emperor, king, prince, or foreign power, such person shall cease to be a citizen of the United States, and shall be incapable of holding any office of trust or profit under them, or either of them." [Emphasis added.}
At the first reading, the meaning of this 13th Amendment (also called the "title of nobility" Amendment) seems obscure, unimportant. The references to "nobility", "honour", "emperor", "king", and "prince" lead us to dismiss this amendment as a petty post-revolution act of spite directed against the British monarchy. But in our modern world of Lady Di and Prince Charles, anti-royalist sentiments seem so archaic and quaint, that the Amendment can be ignored.
[ ... ]
So began a seven year, nationwide search for the truth surrounding the most bizarre Constitutional puzzle in American history -- the unlawful removal of a ratified Amendment from the Constitution of the United States. Since 1983, Dodge and Dunn have uncovered additional copies of the Constitution with the "missing" 13th Amendment printed in at least eighteen separate publications by ten different states and territories over four decades from 1822 to 1860.
In June of this year, Dodge uncovered the evidence that this missing 13th Amendment had indeed been lawfully ratified by the state of Virginia and was therefore an authentic Amendment to the American Constitution. If the evidence is correct and no logical errors have been made, a 13th Amendment restricting lawyers from serving in government was ratified in 1819 and removed from our Constitution during the tumult of the Civil War.
Since the Amendment was never lawfully repealed, it is still the Law today. The implications are enormous.
...The present pyramid is not, however, of that first creation, but of a second, a 'new
order of the world" (novus ordo seclorum), represented here as constituted of
exactly 13 courses allegorical of our 13 original states. And whereas behind the
new pyramid there is only a desert to be seen, before and around it are the sprouting
seeds of a new and fresh beginning, dated 1776: 1 + 7 + 7 + 6 = 21. Mankind,
that is to say, has herewith come of age and taken to itself responsibility and
authority for the shaping of human lives according to Reason.
Moreover, between the dated course at the the pyramid's base, which tells of an
occurrence in Time, and the Eye at the top, which is of Eternity, there are 12 courses
this being the number of signs of the belt of the Zodiac as defining the limits of the
physical world. The number 13, accordingly, which is that of the dated course at
the base, represents a creative transcendence of the boundary; of death, as appears
in the popular superstition of 13 at table, but an achieved life beyond death, as
signified in the model of the table at the Last Supper, where the 12 apostles were
of the number of the belt of the zodiac by which the physical world is bounded,
whereas the incarnate God who was about to die, though indeed among them in the
field of Time, was of Eternity, beyond the pale of death. Thus the number 13 of
our 13 originating states is here interpreted and celebrated as the sign of a
resurrection of life out of death, fresh leaves from a desert, a wholesome gift of
the light of Reason as an awakener to maturity of the mind in its social conscience.
The Flag Resolution did not specify any particular arrangement for the stars. The pictured flag shows the thirteen stars arranged in a circle, the so-called Betsy Ross flag. Although the Betsy Ross legend is not taken seriously by many historians, the design itself is the oldest version of any US flag to appear on any physical relic...
The circle of 13 stars denotes unity of purpose as exemplified by the 13 original states.
Like the Fifth Air Force, the Thirteenth Air Force has never been stationed in the United States; it is also one of the oldest, continuously active, numbered air forces. It engaged in combat in the Pacific during World War II. Since World War II, it has provided air defense in the Far East, primarily the Philippines, until the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo forced the closure of Clark AB. Numerous Thirteenth Air Force organizations participated in Southeast Asia combat operations in the 1960s and 1970s.
Commands During World War II
XIII Bomber Command 1943-46
XIII Fighter Command 1943-46
During the American Revolution, the emblems used on paper money often symbolized unity.
Continental Currency, the Continental Congress, and the Continental Army were unifying factors that helped the transition of 13 states into one nation. Paper money, however, was not as well appreciated, thanks in part to British efforts at underminining public confidence in it (including counterfeiting). "Not worth a Continental" became a saying.
The the back of the legendary Fugio* coins and currency (above) designed by Benjamin Franklin had a circle of 13 interlocking rings surrounding the motto, "WE ARE ONE."
Auriga is the 13th sign of the zodiac between Taurus and Gemini sometimes represented by The Charioteer or The Spider. It is my understanding that this 13th sign of the zodiac has been veiled or suppressed over time. Its like a link in the 12 sun signs that not only creates a complete circle of 13 signs, but it also step the cirlcle up to the next level - a spiral!
Auriga also relates to the alta Major Chakra. The Alta Major is situated to the below the ear and part of the 3 chakra's (chakrettes?) that form the Third eye.
The most successful and universally recognized deck of cards is that based on a complement of 52, divided into four suits, each containing 13 ranks, so that each card is uniquely identifiable by suit and rank.
Cairn and retaining circle - This cairn has a retaining circle of 13 kerb-set visible stones and has a circumference of 6.0m. Much of the cairn has been removed and some has been deposited outside the circle.
North America has been divided into twenty-six regions for the purpose of representation on the NAIG Council. A Council consisting of 13 mandated representatives from Canada and 13 representatives from the U.S.A. Canada is represented by the Aboriginal Sport Circle's 13 Provincial/Territorial Aboriginal Sport Bodies that have a grassroots mandate to represent the interests of the First Nations, Inuit and Mιtis peoples of their region. The USA is still evolving towards this model with the creation of the Indigenous Peoples Sport Circle. Its 13 state regions are the USA's representation on the NAIG Council.
Mormons by the way have had 13 Prophets since Muhammad.
...this program shows how the individual end points and control points of Bιzier curves can be animated. A circle is approximated with four Bιzier curves. (See pages 629-632 of Programming Windows with C# for details on the technique.) The 13 points are animated between the circle values and those necessary to define a square approximately equal in area. For the four sides of the square, the Bιziers collapse into straight lines when the two control points lie on the straight line between the two end points.
His father died in 254. A.H. (868 AD) when he was twenty-two. Four months before his death, the father declared his son to be his successor and executor of his will, asking his followers to bear witness to the fact. Thus the responsibilities of Imamate were vested upon him which he fulfilled even in the face of great difficulties and hostile environment.
In the early days of his lmamate, Al-Mu"tassam Al-"Abbasi was the caliph. When the latter was deposed, he was succeeded by al-Muhtadi. After his brief reign of only eleven months and one week, al-Mu"tamad came to the throne. During their regimes, Imam Hasan al-Askari (A.S.) did not enjoy peace at all. Although the Abbaside dynasty was involved in constant complications and disorders, each and every king thought it necessary to keep the Imam (A.S.) imprisoned.
One of the Holy Prophet"s traditions ran that the Prophet (S.A.W) would be succeeded by twelve soccessors, the last of whom would be the Mahdi, Qa"im "Al-Muhammad (A.S.). The "Abbasides knew well that the true successors of the Prophet (S.A.W) were these very Imams. AI-Hasan (A.S.) being the eleventh, his son would surely be the 12th or the last. They, tried to put an end to his life in such a way, that it would ensure there would be nobody to succeed him. As the simple confinement inflicted on Imam "Ali an-Naqi (A.S.) was considered inadequate for Imam Hasan al-"Askari (A.S.), so he was imprisoned, away from his family. No doubt the revolutionary intervals between two regimes gave him brief periods of freedom. Yet as soon as the new king came to the throne, he followed his predecessor"s policy and imprisoned the Imam again. The Imam"s brief life therefore was mostly spent inside dungeon cells.
Bush as the Thirteenth Imam
Quite a few young Iranians even welcomed the invasion of Iraq, hoping it would bring freedom and democracy closer to them. Seeing how the US invasion has benefited the Shiites in southern Iraq, they joke that President George W. Bush is “the thirteenth imam.”
George Bush Jr. And The Number 13
Do you really think all of this is coincidence. What are the odds? So what are we really looking at? We have President George Bush Jr. who is 13th cousin of Britain's Queen Mother, and of her daughter Queen Elizabeth and is a 13th cousin once removed of the heir to the throne, Prince Charles. Officially becoming the 43rd President on December 13th of a nation who had originally 13 colonies, who celebrates its independence day July 4 which is exactly 13 days after Summer Solstice on June 21. In this calculation, June 22 is counted as 'Day 1. Whom some consider this country to be the 13th tribe of Israel.
Great Seal Secrets Revealed!
The Internet age has seen an explosion in such conspiracy theories, many which have now been ingrained in public consciousness through the popular "National Treasure" movie franchise that serves up a combination of Masonic lore and historical myths in blockbuster Hollywood fashion.
* That the Seal proves the domination of the United States by a powerful, quasi-religious cult. The Ancient Scottish Rite of Freemasonry is a perennial favorite of conspiracy theorists as some Founding Fathers were Masons and the Seal uses several Masonic symbols.
* That the Seal draws on Satanism or polytheistic ritual to promote a universal new world order under which Earth would be ruled by a single omnipotent government.
* That repeated references to 13 — the number of steps in the unfinished pyramid, stars in the constellation over the eagle's head, arrows in the eagle's claw, stripes on the eagle's shield, letters in the phrase "Annuit Coeptis" — demonstrate the power of 13 American families.
* That there are two seals: one in which the eagle's head faces the arrows for times of war and another in which the eagle's head faces the olive branch for times of peace.
All rubbish, according to historians, who say the Seal's symbolism is far less ominous or revelatory than many believe.
Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, the Seal's 66th and current custodian, on Tuesday inaugurated a new exhibition to commemorate its 225th birthday and trace the history and evolution of the symbolism.
"This exhibit honoring the Great Seal affirms our continued belief in the values of our founding," she said. "The Great Seal symbolizes the unity, strength and independence of a new nation, the United States of America."
The Seal will remain at the State Department but the interactive exhibit is designed to travel and curators hope it will dispel the rumors and educate Americans about the real meaning of the symbols.
Among the highlights:
* That known Masons like the first U.S. president, George Washington, and Benjamin Franklin had no role in designing the final seal, which uses elements of traditional heraldry, such as the unfinished pyramid to symbolize a work in progress, arrows for war and an olive branch for peace. Masons share some of those symbols, but they have never been exclusively the domain of the order.
* That the phrase "Novus Ordo Seclorum" below the Roman numerals for 1776 at the base of the pyramid translates as "A New Order of the Ages" that began with independence and does not imply the United States will be the lynchpin of a sinister "New World Order."
* That the words "Annuit Coeptis" ("Providence favors") and the eye of providence that hovers over the pyramid refer to unexpected interventions of fate that assisted the colonists in creating a new country.
* That the references to 13 refer to the number of colonies that formed the original United States.
International organizations such as the World Bank, IMF, European Union, the United Nations, and NATO are often listed as core NWO organizations. Presidents and prime ministers of nations are routinely included in the conspiracy. A slightly different version of the NWO theory goes as far as saying that these families and persons are all part of the same 13 bloodlines.
In 1913 the Federal Reserve System was created by a group of bankers and politicians in a secret meeting and transferred the power of creating money from the US Government to these individuals.
Annuit Cœptis Novus Ordo Seclorum
The phrase means "New Order of the Ages". Some of those who believe that the Freemasons are involved in the conspiracy to create a New World Order claim that the motto is inspired by Freemasonry, and is one of the clues to the True Masters of the World. By circumscribing the 6 pointed hexagram, or Star of David, over the pyramid, 5 of the 6 apices (the 6th being the 'All-seeing eye'), point near letters spelling S-M-O-N-A, which can be rearranged to spell Mason monas and moans, as well as the phenome "omans", which possibly could portend to "omens"). (In Hebrew the word "oman" (plural "omanim") means artisan or skilled labourer, hence the possible reference in the word mason)
Advocates of the theory also cite the 13 steps to ascend the pyramid, and the 72 visible blocks on the front. The Great US seal is also ascribed as employing heavily masonic imagery, with many believing the eagle to represent the masonic phoenix. The eagle holds an olive branch with 13 olives and 13 leaves in one claw, and 13 arrows in the other. The recurrence and significance of the number 13 is often attributed to its importance in numerology, and also to there being 13 degrees in York Rite Freemasonry. The Great Seal's eagle also has 32 feathers on the right wing and 33 on left wing (32 and 33 being the two highest degrees in Scottish Rite Freemasonry).
More conventional thinkers regard the thirteen steps as referring to the thirteen colonies. If the blocks are correctly counted and their number intended, 72 has other mystical meanings: it was sacred to the Egyptians, as Plutarch says; and both Jews and Christians use it as the number of nations on the Earth.
Yet another lost stone circle in Lancashire, as the name suggests its a circle of 13 boulders, ive only ever found a brief reference to this circle and the circle itself is not marked on any maps although the hill is.
A survey of sex therapists concluded the optimal amount of time for sexual intercourse was 3 to 13 minutes. The findings, to be published in the May issue of the Journal of Sexual Medicine, strike at the notion that endurance is the key to a great sex life.
13 (Thirteen) is the natural number following 12 and preceding 14.
1) In mathematics
Thirteen is the 6th smallest prime number, the next is seventeen. 13 is a Wilson prime. 13 is the fifth Mersenne prime [In mathematics, a Mersenne prime is a prime number that is one less than a power of two. For example, 3 4 − 1 22 − 1 is a Mersenne prime; so is 7 8 − 1 23 − 1. On the other hand, 15 16 − 1 24 − 1, for example, is not a exponent] yielding 8191. 13 is also the third lucky prime [A lucky prime is a number that is a prime number and a lucky number. The first few lucky primes are 3 7 13 31 37 43 67 73 79 127 151 163 193 211 223 241 283 307 331 349 367 409 421 433 463 487 541 577 601 613 619 631 643 673 727 739 769 787 823 883 937 99].
13 is a star number [A star number or centered 12-gonal number is a figurate number that represents a centered hexagram, such as the one that Chinese checkers are played on. The star numbers for n is given by the formula 6''n ''n 1) + 1. The first few star numbers are 1, 13] and the seventh Fibonacci number [In mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers form a sequence defined recursively by: : In words: you start with 0 and 1, and then produce the next Fibonacci number by adding the two previous Fibonacci numbers. The first Fibonacci numbers (sequence A000045 in OEI]. There are 13 Archimedean solids [An Archimedean solid or semiregular solid is a convex polyhedron with regular polygons as faces, such that at least two different types of regular polygons are used, and all vertices are identical].
13 goes into 999,999 exactly 76,923 times, so fractions with 13 in the denominator have six digit repeating sequences in their decimal expansions.
At 13, the Mertens function sets a new low of -3, subseded later at 31 with a value of -4.
2) As lucky, unlucky, or significant number
Thirteen is regarded as an unlucky number in many cultures. Unreasoned fear of the number 13 is termed triskaidekaphobia. Due to this fear, some tall buildings have resorted to skipping the "thirteenth floor", simply by numbering it "14" (though it's really still the thirteenth floor) or by designating the floor "12a" or similar instead. The thirteenth of a month is likewise ominous, particularly when it falls on a Friday (see Friday the 13th). The 13th falls on a Friday more often than any other day. In fact it occurs more often than any other day/number combination except those that coincide with it (Thursday the 12th, Saturday the 14th, etc). On months with a Friday the 13th, the first day of the month begins on a Sunday. The calendar for such a month has a full first line, and thus a more square, completed look.
In the Christian religion, the number is considered significant since there were thirteen present at the Last Supper. Also, if both Judas and Matthias are counted, there were thirteen apostles. Thirteen was also once associated with the Epiphany by Christians, the Christ child having received the Magi on his thirteenth day of life.
Modern day witches have reclaimed the number 13 as a lucky and significant number. This may be similar to witches reclaiming other previously negative terms and ideas associated with witchcraft, such as black cats, brooms, and even the term witch itself. In modern day Wicca, thirteen is considered the maximum size of a coven, and in some traditions the ideal number of members. In Gardnerian Wicca, the ideal coven has thirteen members, evenly divided between male and female.
Amongst some Chinese people, it is regarded as a lucky number because it is synonymous with "實生", which means "must be alive". But this belief is not universal, or even known to all Chinese. Also, 13 is regarded as unlucky by those Chinese under the influence of foreign cultures.
Thirteen is the sixth prime number; the next is seventeen. 13 is the second Wilson prime. 13 is the fifth Mersenne prime exponent, yielding 8191.
13 is the second star number and the seventh Fibonacci number. As it is an odd-indexed Fibonacci number, it is a Markov number, appearing in solutions to the "Markov Diophantine equation": (1, 5, 13), (1, 13, 34), (5, 13, 194), ...
13 is also the second happy prime, following 7, and the rethorical 1.
Thirteen is the first prime number to be the aliquot sum of two numbers; the cube 27, and the discrete biprime 35 and it is the base of the 13-aliquot tree.
There are 13 Archimedean solids.
13 goes into 999,999 exactly 76,923 times, so vulgar fractions with 13 in the denominator have six digit repeating sequences in their decimal expansions. It is thus the smallest half period prime (sequence A097443 in OEIS)
13 is the largest number whose factorial is less than 1010. This means 13 is often the largest factorial a pocket calculator can represent without scientific notation. (This is not really a special pure mathematical property, because it requires 10 to be the "main base number" self-evidently.)
At 13, the Mertens function sets a new low of -3, subseded later at 31 with a value of -4.
13 is the only positive integer that is the fourth root of the sum of the squares of two successive positive integers (119 and 120).
The 13th root is the most famous integer root calculation record, because 13 is the first prime number over 10 such that the last digit of a 13th integer power is the same as the last digit of its 13th root.
In base 10, the smallest prime with a composite sum of digits is 13.
13 is a repdigit in base 3 (111).
Let ploggx denote the discrete logarithm according to the prime number p, i.e., the number l modulo p − 1 such that
Then 13 is the only prime number p such that for any two primitive roots g and h,
There exists an a periodic set of thirteen Wang tiles.
The Primorial+1 : 13#+1=2*3*5*7*11*13+1 is the first number of the form n#+1 which is composite.
Also, the first whole number to have the sum of its digits equal 13 and also be divisible by 13 is 247 (2+4+7=13)(13*19=247) There are 24 hours in a day and 7 days in a week. The next number to have these attributes is 364 (3+6+4)(13*28) This is one day less than a year. 13 flipped around is 31, which accounts for the number of days in most months.
On the periodic table of elements, aluminum has an atomic number of 13.
There were thirteen participants at the Last Supper. Tradition states that Judas Iscariot, the disciple who betrayed Jesus, was the 13th to sit at the table.
Thirteen was once associated with the Epiphany by Christians, as it is said the child Jesus received the Magi on his thirteenth day of life.
According to famous Sakhi(Evidence) or story of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, when he was an accountant at a town of Sultanpur Lodhi, he was distributing grocery to people and when he gave grocery to the 13th person, he stopped there because in Gurmukhi and Hindi the word 13 is called Terah which means yours. And Guru Nanak kept on saying yours yours yours remembering God. People reported to the emperor that Guru Nanak was giving out free food to the people. When treasures were checked, there was more money than before.
The word "Waheguru" appears only 13 times in Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh holy scriptures and the eternal Guru.
The Vaisakhi which commemorates the creation of "Khalsa" or pure Sikh was celebrated on 13th of April for many years.
Ik Onkar also looks like 13.
In Judaism, 13 signifies the age at which a boy matures and becomes a Bar Mitzvah (Age of 12 for Girls, or Bat Mitzvah).
The number of principles of Jewish faith according to Maimonides
According to the Torah, God has 13 Attributes of Mercy
The number of circles, or "nodes", that make up Metatron's Cube in Kaballistic teachings.
In Mesoamerican divination, 13 is the number of important cycles of fortune/misfortune (see Trecena).
The number of Norse gods (there were 12) at a banquet that was crashed by the evil spirit Loki (making 13) who killed Baldr with an arrow/spear made out of mistletoe using Hodr, thus marking the beginning of Ragnarok.
Unlucky 13: Triskaidekaphobia
The number 13 is associated with bad luck in some countries, and even has a specifically recognized phobia, Triskaidekaphobia, a word which was coined in 1911. Friday the 13th has been considered an unlucky day since the 1800s, as a combination between an unlucky day, Friday, and the number 13.
In Sikhism, the number 13 is considered a special number since 13 is tera in Punjabi, which also means "yours" (as in, "I am yours, O Lord"). The legend goes that when Guru Nanak Dev was taking stock of items as part of his employment with a village merchant, he counted from 1 to 13 (in Punjabi) as one does normally; and thereafter he would just repeat "tera", since all items were God's creation. The merchant confronted Guru Nanak about this, but found everything to be in order after the inventory was checked. April 13 also usually turns out to be Vaisakhi every year, which is the Sikh New Year and the major Sikh Holiday.
Several successful athletes have worn the number 13. Alex Rodriguez is said to be one of the most talented baseball players ever; he has also signed the biggest sports contract and wears the number 13. Dan Marino, an American football player known for passing the 2nd most yards in NFL history, wore the number 13, although pundits in the sport have often cited him as the greatest quarterback never to win an NFL championship. Basketball great Wilt Chamberlain wore the number 13 on his jersey throughout his NBA career. Also, FIBA rules require a player to wear the number in international competitions (only numbers from 4 to 15 could be worn, and as there are 12 players, one must wear 13); Chris Mullin, who wore #20 in college and #17 in the NBA, wore #13 for both (1984 and 1992) of his Olympic appearances. Shaquille O'Neal wore #13 in 1996, Tim Duncan wore #13 in 2004, Steve Nash is currently wearing it for the Phoenix Suns, Yao Ming is currently wearing it in the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, and also Mats Sundin, wears 13 in the NHL. One of Iceland's all time best handball players, Sigurður Sveinsson, wore the number 13 when he played for the national team.
In Italy, 13 is also considered to be a lucky number.
Colgate University also considers 13 to be a lucky number. They were founded in 1819 by 13 men with 13 dollars, 13 prayers, and 13 articles. (To this day, members of the Colgate community consider the number 13 a good omen.) In fact, the campus address is 13 Oak Drive in Hamilton, NY and the all men a capella group is called the Colgate 13.
In tattoo culture, where symbols often represent the opposite of their most obvious meaning, 13 sometimes symbolizes good luck, especially in "old school" style tattoos.
It is at this point when a person officially becomes a teenager.
In Jewish tradition a boy becomes bar mitzvah at age 13, when a ceremony is held and the boy reads from the Torah for the first time. Girls may also celebrate their bat mitzvah at age 13 in many Conservative and Reform Jewish congregations.
Youngest a minor can watch a PG-13 rated movie by the MPAA without the recommendation of parental guidance or parental consent.
Youngest age a minor can rent or purchase a T rated game by the ESRB without parental consent.
Minimum age a person can buy a 13+ rated movie in the Canadian province of Quebec without an adult 16 or older.
There are 13 players in a rugby league team. In rugby union one of the centres, most often but not always the outside centre, wears the 13 shirt.
Basketball Hall of Famer Wilt Chamberlain wore number 13. Three NBA teams, plus the Harlem Globetrotters, have retired his number.
Pro Football Hall of Fame quarterback Dan Marino wore number 13 for the Miami Dolphins, who retired his number in 2000.
2004-2005 and 2005-2006 NBA Most Valuable Player Steve Nash wears the number 13.
New York Jets wide receiver Don Maynard wore number 13 for the New York Jets, who retired his number in 1972.
In football (soccer), Kristine Lilly, who made more international appearances than any other player in the sport's history, wore #13 for the USA women's team. A current notable wearer of #13 in football is Michael Ballack, who wears the jersey both for his club Chelsea and the Germany national team, the latter of which he captains.
In Formula 1, no driver has had the number 13 on his car since 1976.
13 (Blur album)
13 (Die Ärzte album)
13 (The Doors album)
13 (Brian Setzer album)
13 (Six Feet Under album)
13 (Solace album)
Thirteen (album), by Teenage Fan Club
"Thirteen," a song by Big Star on the album #1 Record
Film, television, theatre
Thirteen (House), a character on the TV series House
Number 13 (film)
WNET, a New Jersey television station
XIII (comic book)
Doctor Thirteen, a comic book character
Traci Thirteen, daughter of Doctor Thirteen
XIII (video game)
13 (card game)
Black Man, a novel by Richard K. Morgan, published as Thirteen in the U.S.
Thirteen, a 2008 young adult novel by Lauren Myracle
13, a cat in the animated series The Zimmer Twins
Thirteen (book), a collection of stories
Baroness is a solitaire card game that is played with a deck of 52 playing cards. Also known as Five Piles and Thirteens, it is a game that has an arrangement that is almost like that of Aces Up but with the game play of Pyramid.
Five cards are dealt in a row; they will form the bases of the five piles, the top cards of which are available for play.
Abgarus of Edessa is reinstalled as king of Osroene.
The Senate passes a senatus consultum restricting the reduced Vigintisexviri to the Ordo Equester.
Tiberius makes his triumphant procession through Rome after the siege of Germany.
Last year (5th) of Shijianguo era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty.
Arts and Sciences
Strabo publishes his view on the shape of the Earth.
Empress Wang Zhengjun (b. 71 BC)
As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 through 1300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian/Common Era. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages, and after its conquests in Asia the Mongol Empire stretched from Korea to Eastern Europe.
1204 — Fourth Crusade sacks Byzantine Constantinople and creates the Latin Empire.
1204 — Fall of Normandy from Angevin hands to the French King, Philip Augustus, end of Norman domination of France.
1205 — Battle of Adrianople (1205): Tsar Kaloyan with his army crushed the (otherwise unbeaten) Fourth Crusade's knights and the soldiers of Emperor Baldwin I of Constantinople who was attacking Bulgarian lands with the goal to conquer them.
1206 — Mongols united under Temüjin, who is proclaimed "Genghis Khan".
1212 — The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in Iberia sees the beginning of a rapid Christian reconquest of the southern half of the Iberian peninsula, with the defeat of Moorish forces.
1215 — King John of England forced to sign Magna Carta at Runnymede.
1215 — Beijing is captured and torched by the Mongols under Genghis Khan, initiating the Yuan Dynasty in China.
1220 — The Islamic lands of Central Asia are overrun by the armies of the Mongol invader Genghis Khan.
1221 — The Maya of the Yucatán revolt against the rulers of Chichen Itza.
1222 — Andrew II of Hungary signs the Golden Bull which affirms the privileges of Hungarian nobility.
1227 — Genghis Khan dies during the prolonged siege of the Western Xia Dynasty capital (located in northwestern China), while the Tangut Western Xia Dynasty falls soon after.
1234 — the Jin Dynasty of northeastern China is conquered by the forces of the Mongol ruler Ögedei Khan.
1238 — The Thai Kingdom of Sukhothai is established, with Theravada Buddhism as the state religion. Later in the century it vassalises significant parts of modern Thailand, Laos, Burma, and Malaysia.
1249 — End of the Portuguese Reconquista against the Moors, when King Afonso III of Portugal reconquers the Algarve.
1250-1275 — the Arab or Persian born Muslim Pu Shougeng was appointed by the Song Dynasty Chinese government as the Commissioner of Merchant Shipping for Quanzhou.
1258 — Baghdad (Iraq), seat of the Muslim Abbasid dynasty, is besieged and burnt to the ground by the forces of the Mongol commander Hulagu Khan. The last Abbasid ruler Al-Musta'sim is executed by means of trampling horses.
1259 — the Mongol ruler Möngke Khan is killed in battle by a Chinese cannon blast at Fishing Town, Chongqing, located in southwestern China.
1260 — the Mongols are defeated by the Egyptian Mamluks in the Battle of Ain Jalut.
1270 — Restoration of Solomonic dynasty in Ethiopia, deposing the Zagwe dynasty.
1271 — Edward I of England and Charles of Anjou arrive in Acre, starting the Ninth Crusade against Baibars.
1276 — A severe 23-year drought begins to affect the Grand Canyon area, eventually forcing the agriculture-dependent Anasazi culture to migrate out of the region.
1277 — Sultan Baibars invades Anatolia and captures the emirates which once composed the Sultanate of Rüm.
1279, the Battle of Yamen marks the fall of the Chinese Song Dynasty and the rise of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty led by Khublai Khan.
1279 — The Chola Dynasty of South India falls under attacks by the Hoysala Empire and Pandyan kingdom.
1281 — Mamluk sultan Qalawun defeats an invasion of Syria by Mongol Ilkhan Abaqa Khan at the Second Battle of Homs.
1281 — The second Mongol invasion of Japan is foiled, as a large typhoon — famously called a kamikaze — destroys much of the combined Chinese and Korean fleet and forces.
1282 — Aragon acquires Sicily, after the Sicilian Vespers.
1283 — Kublai Khan's Mongol Empire invades the Khmer empire of present-day Cambodia; King Jayavarman VIII decides to pay tribute rather than fight the invasion.
1284 — Peterhouse, Cambridge founded by Hugo de Balsham, the Bishop of Ely.
1285 — Second Mongol raid against Hungary, led by Nogai Khan.
1291 — The Swiss Confederation is formed by Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden.
1291 — Mamluk Sultan of Egypt Khalil captures Acre, thus exterminating the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem (the final Christian landholding remaining from the Crusades).
Battle of Bouvines
Bantu-speaking peoples arrive in modern Angola, partially displacing the original Khoisan inhabitants.
Persian historian Rashid al-Din records eleven Buddhist texts circulating in Arabic translation.
James I of Aragon takes control of Balearic Islands and Valencia.
Marco Polo and his family reach China.
Norway cedes the Isle of Man to Scotland, following the signing of the Treaty of Perth.
Ögedei Khan establishes a Mongolian dynasty in China. Some Mongol leaders convert from Tantric Buddhism to Islam.
Teutonic Knights begin activity in Eastern Europe.
Theravada overtakes Mahayana as the dominant form of Buddhism in Cambodia.
A period of civil unrest, Sturlungaöld, leads to Iceland becoming part of the Kingdom of Norway.
End of Hohenstaufen dynasty at the Battle of Tagliacozzo. The Kingdom of Sicily goes to French Anjou house.
Fall of the Ghana Empire.
Fall of the Hohenstaufen dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors. Sicily and Naples are acquired by the French count Charles I of Naples.
Fifth through eighth crusades of western European kingdoms against Islam.
Finland gets its first city, Turku.
First European universities founded.
Most of Asia and Eastern Europe is conquered and incorporated into the Mongol Empire.
The Medieval Warm Period ends.
The Utiguri Bulgar state on the Volga vanishes from history.
Samoa gains its independence from the Tu'i Tonga Empire, and founds the Malietoa dynasty.
Genghis Khan, founder of Mongol Empire
Batu Khan, Mongol ruler and the founder of the Golden Horde
Haakon Haakonsson, king of Norway from 1217 to 1263. After the long civil war Norway would again prosper under his rule and come to dominate Scandinavian politics.
Kaloyan, Emperor of Bulgaria
Ivan Asen II, Emperor of Bulgaria
Edward I of England, English King
Ottokar II of Bohemia, King of Bohemia
Baibars, Mameluk sultan of Egypt
Ibn Taymiyyah, famous Hanbali, Salafi Scholar of Islam
Dante Alighieri, Italian writer
William Marshal, knight and statesman.
Saint Thomas Aquinas, theologian
Giotto di Bondone, Italian painter
Cimabue, Florentine painter
Sundiata Keita semi-historical founder of the Mali Empire
Alexander of Hales, philosopher and theologian
Albertus Magnus, German philosopher and theologian
Francis of Assisi, founder of the Franciscan order
Robert Grosseteste, English statesman, theologian, and scientist
Roger Bacon, Franciscan, philosopher, and scientist
Birger jarl, Swedish statesman, earl, and founder of Stockholm
Bonaventure, Franciscan theologian
Petrus Peregrinus, scientist
Louis IX of France, St. Louis, French king and crusader
Frederick II, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
Ramon Llull, Majorcan philosopher
Kublai Khan, Khan ruler, founder of Yuan Dynasty in China
Alexander Nevsky, Grand Prince of Novgorod and Vladimir
Saadi Persian poet
Snorri Sturluson, historian and saga-writer
William Wallace, Scottish national leader
Béla IV of Hungary rebuilder of Hungary after the devastating Mongol invasion
Lembitu, Estonian ruler
Queen Tamara, ruler of Georgia
Lasha Giorgi, King Giorgi IV of Georgia
Queen Rusudan, Queen Regnant of Georgia
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
The motet form originates out of the Ars antiqua tradition of Western European music.
Manuscript culture develops out of this time period in cities in Europe, which denotes a shift from monasteries to cities for books.
Pecia system of copying books develops in Italian university-towns and was taken up by the University of Paris in the middle of the century.
Wooden movable type printing invented by the Chinese governmental minister Wang Zhen in 1298.
The earliest known rockets, landmines, and handguns are made by the Chinese for use in warfare.
The Chinese adopt the windmill from the Islamic world.
Thirteen: The number of bad luck and associated with evil power. Witches'coven were thought to always contain 13 members, but there is no firm evidence for this. Most covens range in size from 4 to 20 members. Many neo-Pagan witches consider 13 to be a lucky number!
From Wicca Chat
Coven : A group of witches who work and rite together utilizing the greater empowerment of the sum of its members, as opposed to the power of those members added individually. Containing both male and female members, traditionally a coven has 13 members but may contain any number of members.
Esbat : From the french word, esbattre, meaning to frolic, the esbat is the powerful ritual time of the full moon. There are 13 esbats in a year, all known by moon names.
...Four times in the year the Great Sabbat, returns,
And the Witches are seen,
At Lammas and Candelas dancing,
On May Eve and old Halloween
When daytime and nighttime are equal,
When sun is at greatest and least,
The four lesser Sabbats are summoned,
Again Witches gather in feast.
Thirteen silver moons in a year are,
Thirteen is the Covens array,
Thirteen times at Esbat make merry,
For each golden year and a day.
The power has passed down the ages...
CIRCLE - The space within which Wiccan rituals are held and where it is believed contact with greater spiritual forces can be achieved. ( Casting A Circle)
CIRCLE - the area in which the magickal worship and spells takes place. Can also be used to designate a particular group of Witches or Pagans such as "Silver Acorn Circle".
COVEN - an organized group of Witches, led by a High priestess and/or a High Priest who meet regularly for worship and fellowship. The traditional membership is 13, but in fact most covens number considerably less. 3 is the minimum in the Georgian Tradition. In Middle English,"Covin" a group of confederates; In Old French "Covine" a band or group with a single purpose; Latin "Com"-together,"Venire"-to come or move.
COVEN - Traditionally, a group of 12 plus a "leader". Most Witches covens were originally built around this number, though the Burning Times ended the widespread practice of this tradition, as there were seldom 13 Witches alive in any given area. In modern usage, "coven" refers to any group of pagans that wishes to use the term. Note: The original "12+1" configuration can be found in several Christian myths and traditions. Christ and his 12 Apostles, Arthur and his original 12 Knights, the 13 stars in
Mary, the Queen of Heaven's crown, etc.
Cinema (Internet Movie Database)
2.Boogie Nights (1997) aka "Pushing Thirteen" - USA (working title)
3.Ocean's Thirteen (2007)
4.Thirteen Days (2000)
5.Thir13en Ghosts (2001) aka "Thirteen Ghosts" - USA (alternative spelling)
1.Terry O'Quinn (Actor, The X Files (1998))
nickname "Mister Ten Thirteen"
1.Ten Thirteen Productions [us] (Production)
1.XIII (2003) (VG) aka "Thirteen" - USA (alternative spelling)
3.City in Panic (1986) aka "Thirteen" - USA (DVD box title)
4.Trinajstica (1988) (TV) aka "Thirteen" - (English title)
6.Zao shou (1974) aka "Thirteen" - Hong Kong (English title) (original subtitled version)
1.Thirteen ("House M.D." (2004), Olivia Wilde)
1.Thirteen Conversations About One Thing (2001)
2.13 Ghosts (1960) aka "Thirteen Ghosts"
3.Trece campanadas (2002) aka "Thirteen Chimes" - (English title) (literal title), (English title)
4.13 kaidan (2003) aka "Thirteen Steps" - USA
5.The Alamo: Thirteen Days to Glory (1987) (TV)
6.Thirteen at Dinner (1985) (TV) aka "Agatha Christie's Thirteen at Dinner" - USA (complete title) aka "Agatha Christie's 'Thirteen at Dinner'"
7.Number 13 (1922) aka "Number Thirteen"
8.13 Dead Men (2003) aka "Thirteen Dead Men" - USA (alternative spelling)
9.Shi san tai bao (1970) aka "Thirteen Warlords" - (literal English title)
10.Thirteen Women (1932)
11.Juusan-nin no shikaku (1963) aka "The Thirteen Assassins"
12.Officer Thirteen (1932)
13.Shi san ke pao tong (2006) aka "Thirteen Princess Trees" - (English title)
14.Thirteen Erotic Ghosts (2002)
15.Xin leng xue shi san ying (1992) aka "Thirteen Cold-Blooded Eagles"
16.13 Fighting Men (1960) aka "Thirteen Fighting Men"
17.The Filthy Thirteen: Real Stories from Behind the Lines (2006) (V)
18.Fluch des schwarzen Rubin, Der (1965) aka "Thirteen Days to Die" - USA
19.Koffer des Herrn O.F., Die (1931) aka "The Thirteen Trunks of Mr. O.F."
20.Number 13 (2008)aka "Number Thirteen" - USA
21.Prohibition: Thirteen Years That Changed America (1997) (TV)
22.Reason Thirteen (1998)
23.Shang Hai tan: Shi san tai bao (1981)
aka "The Shanghai Thirteen" - Hong Kong (English title) (video title)
24.Thirteen Hours by Air (1936)
25.Treize ΰ table (1956)
aka "Thirteen at the Table" - (English title)
26.Trinadtsat (1937) aka "The Thirteen" - USA
28.Wet Dreams (1974)
aka "Dreams of Thirteen" - USA (working title)
29.Why Must I Die? (1960)
aka "Thirteen Steps to Death"
30.Zui quan nu diao shou (1979)
aka "Thirteen Evil Bandits" - (English title)
31.13 dni (1964)
aka "Thirteen Days" - (English title)
32.13 stolar (1945)
aka "Thirteen Chairs" - (English title) (informal literal title)
aka "Eight Thirteen" - USA (alternative spelling)
34.Dip huet sap saam (1992)
aka "Bloodshed Thirteen" - (literal English title)
aka "Thirteen Days of Love" - USA
36.Flight for Thirteen (1995) (TV)
37.Four Thirteen (1914)
38.Kreboizen and Cancer: Thirteen Years of Bitter Conflict (1964) (TV)
39.Letzte Kompanie, Die (1930)
aka "Thirteen Men and a Girl" - (English title)
40.Meisje van dertien (1974)
aka "A Girl of Thirteen" - (English title)
41.Officer Number Thirteen (1925)
42.Onόη kahraman (1943)
aka "The Thirteen Heroes" - (English title)
43.Tero Nadir Parey (1969)
aka "Beyond Thirteen Rivers" - India (English title)
44."Thirteen Against Fate" (1966) (TV series)
45.Thirteen at Table (1913)
46.Thirteen Days: The Making of a Crisis (2000) (TV)
47.Thirteen Down (1915)
48.Thirteen Floors (2007) (V)
49.Thirteen Heroes with Seven Swords (1949)
50.The Thirteen Most Beautiful Boys (1964)
51.Thirteen Ways... (2001)
52.Trinaest stoljeca hrvatske kulture (1993) (V)
aka "Thirteen Centuries of Croatian Culture" - (English title)
1.Sap Sam Chan (Writer, Kuen sun (2001))
aka "Thirteen Chan Sap Sam"
aka "Thirteen Chan"
1.Thirteen/WNET [us] (Distributor)
2.Thirteen/WNET Communications Group [us] (Production)
3.WNET Thirteen [us] (Production)
4.Thirteen Productions LLC [us] (Production)
5.Thirteen Hours Away Productions [us] (Production)
6.Ridgewood Thirteen Productions [us] (Production)
7.Thirteen Films [au] (Production)
How many people can you fit into a diminutive smart fortwo? The amazing answer is 13 following a car cram staged to help celebrate smart's 10th anniversary. Owners and visitors to the annual smart Destination Brooklands event held at Mercedes-Benz World, the UK's leading automotive brand experience centre at Weybridge, were invited to take up the smart-packing challenge.
[ ... ]
With remarkable flexibility, a total of 13 contortionists managed to climb aboard the micro smart which measures just 2.7 metres long by 1.6 metres wide, proving that the fortwo is small on the outside and big on the inside.
Protected areas have been established in every country and territory on Earth as a means to protect nature as well as the species and livelihoods that rely on a particular ecosystem.
Originally the world conservation movement hoped to have 10 per cent of the world's surface under protection but it is now 13 per cent.
Los Angeles, CA (CNS) - If you thought eating bugs on the reality show "Survivor" was bad, then get ready for the ultimate in horror with a new reality show on The CW called "13 Fear Is Real." The new horror reality series premieres Wednesday, January 7 at 8/7c with special encore performances on Fridays at 9/8c beginning January 9.
Celebrity News Service has heard the premise of The CW's new reality show, and it does sound like a horror filled spectacle. On the show, 13 people compete to "stay alive" as they face their deepest fears in an all-out elimination competition and scare-fest. Pitted against each other in situations straight from the horror movies, the 13 will face shocking surprises, psychological scares and lots of "beware of the dark" moments, all designed by a "mastermind" of terror.
Thirteen Days Trailer
Thirteenth Step is the second studio album by the American rock band A Perfect Circle. The album was released as a compact disc on September 16, 2003. The album was a success, reaching the #2 position on the Billboard charts in its premiere week, selling over 231,000 copies. The RIAA certified it as gold on November 4, 2003 and as platinum on March 24, 2006. The first single from the album was "Weak and Powerless", followed by "The Outsider" and "Blue". The tracks have their remixed versions on a 2004 remix album aMotion.
It has been speculated that the title is a reference to the Twelve-step program. According to Keenan on the commentary for the aMotion DVD, the album is a concept album with all of the songs dealing with the problem of addiction from a different perspective. He said that it refers in a way to his 13 years of residence in Los Angeles.
The cover art features a banana slug crawling across a woman's face.
The Parthenon: History, reconstruction, technology and interesting facts (1/2)
A reconstruction of the entrance of the Doric style Temple, the Parthenon. Forty-six columns surround the approximately 31 m x 70 m temple, 10-12 drums of varying heights with 20 shallow flutings; different from other Doric temples which used 6 and 13 pillars for width and length respectively. The building was adopted to the colossal Athena Parthenos statue. The columns are 1.9 m in diameter and 10.4 m high. The corner columns are slightly larger in diameter, with their spacing reduced to make it possible for the frieze to conform to the rule that it must terminate with a triglyph. Sculptures on the metopes under the cornice show battles of Amazons, Centaurs, Giants and of Greeks before Troy. On the whole inner circuit of the body of the temple, the frieze, howing in bas-relief the Panathenaic procession.
Some more exact numbers of the dimensions (stylobat) of the Parthenon are W = 30.88 m , L = 69.5 m and H = 13.72 m which with r = 9/4 satisfies approximately the relations : r*H = W, r*W = L and therefore also r2*H = L.
The Parthenon frieze around the exterior wall of the cella is 1 meter high and 160 meters long. It contains unusually for other temples before not only gods but a large number of “mortals” and animals. Around 130 meters of the Friezes survived and from the remaining 30 meter sketches of Jacques Carrey exist.
13 Reasons why Brad Pitt should be the next Mayor of New Orleans
Reason #1 - He's Qualified
Rather than having to make vague and unpersuasive connections between clearly unrelated qualifications such as, say, franchise executive and governing abilities, the qualifications of our candidate are plainly obvious: as the worldwide audience of Homer's Troy can attest, Mr. Brad Pitt clearly has the stomach for the job, not to mention the shoulders to carry the burden of governance.
Reason #2 - NOLA ♥'s Brad Pitt
By bestowing the great office of Mayor of our city upon Mr. Pitt, we, the citizens, are afforded the opportunity to say thanks for the many wonderful things this gentleman has already done for us. What better way to show our heart-felt appreciation than to present to him the mayoral office, the patronage trough, the cornucopia of our great city, that which we hold so dear and is ours to bequeath?
Reason #3 - Lagniappe
If we elect Brad Pitt mayor, Angelina Jolie would be the First Lady of New Orleans. ...
Dr Kelly did not commit suicide, insist 13 doctors
No coroner's inquest was held into his death and the results of a post-mortem examination were never made public. But the Hutton inquiry commissioned by Tony Blair concluded that the 59-year-old scientist died of blood loss after cutting his wrist with a blunt gardening knife.
Now a team of 13 specialist doctors has questioned that verdict. They say a cut to the wrist's small and hard-to-access ulnar artery could not have caused death. Their 12-page dossier concludes: 'The bleeding from Dr Kelly's ulnar artery is highly unlikely to have been so voluminous and rapid that it was the cause of death.
Dr. Hans Nolte wrote, “The wave spectrum of mercury contains more than thirteen wavelengths, whereas only one or two frequencies or wavelengths are usually observed for the other heavy or noble metals.”
The Day of Discord has a long tradition of being a Discordian gathering day. Some say that, whenever two or more Discordians gather in Her name, the Day of Discord is there. Others say a bunch of stuff, most of it too childishly obscene to repeat here.
The official dates for this calendar were supposed to be based on International Dadism Month before we realized it had several days that conflict with existing holydays. We then decided, in classic Discordian fashion, to re-roll the dice and pull something else out of the hat. (Actually, we just squeezed them into areas that didn't have a lot of holydays, which is also classically Discordian but not very fashionable.)
The Days of Discord are commonly abbreviated as follows:
Astv. As Seen on T.V.
Chz. Choking Hazard
Abv. All of the Above
O.P.S. Other, Please Specify
Thirteen regional and minority languages in Germany are at risk of disappearing, the country's UNESCO commission said Thursday.
Two northern German dialects - Saterland Frisian and North Frisian - were listed by the United Nation's cultural protection organization as the country's most threatened. The Lower Saxon dialect spoken in northern Germany was also reported to be "threatened.
This curious report is written in the chronicles of the medieval monk known as Gervase of Canterbury. The year of the event was AD 1178 and the date, 18 June on the Julian calendar, converts to the evening of 25 June on the modern Gregorian one. If real, it is clear that some extraordinary event on the Moon is being described and the meteorite expert Hartung proposed that what was observed and recorded 800 years ago was the impact of a body on the Moon. The flame, he suggested, was the writhing of incandescent gases, or sunlight reflection from dust thrown out of the crater. The blackish appearance of the Moon along its whole length was a temporary suspension of dust buoyed up by a transient atmosphere. [...]
Hartung deduced that if there was a crater, it would be at least 7 miles in diameter, possess bright rays extending from it for at least seventy miles, and would lie between 30 and 60 degrees north, 75 and 105 degrees east on the Moon. ...
As it happens, there is one crater with the predicted characteristics exists, a crater named after the seventeenth-century heretic Giordano Bruno. This crater is located at 36 degrees N and 105 degrees E, within the predicted area. It is 13 miles in diameter and is distinguished by its remarkable brightness, and by the brilliant system of rays which extend several hundred miles out from it. [...]
The party's only advertisement was in a newspaper personal column, saying: "The Best Party wishes to meet good people aged between 18 and 90." Its 10-point plan had 13 points. And the party's campaign video featured candidates singing Tina Turner's Simply the Best, with the chorus: "We are the best, the bestest of parties, best for Reykjavik, best city of every week." It works in Icelandic.
And made it so I couldn't decide
I don't turn this want
To make beautiful word that goes on and on
And on and on
Those 13 years in prison
Didn't teach me how to love
They say they have their reasons
All coming from above
You can forget the seasons inside your factory
There's one thing they can't teach you is how to feel free
And stand alone in a beautiful world
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